## Evaluation of Naive Bayes and Logistic Regression CLNT144 Statistics for Data Science HB

When we want to know the predicted probability that a case belongs to a class, often we use the naive Bayes algorithm and Logistic Regression.

List and explain 2 advantages/conveniences of the naive Bayes over Logistic Regression approach.

List and explain 2 disadvantages/inconveniences of the naive Bayes over Logistic Regression approach.

To participate in the discussion, respond to the discussion promptly by Thursday at 11:59PM EST. Then, read a selection of your colleagues’ postings. Finally, respond to at least two classmates by Sunday at 11:59PM EST in one or more of the following ways:

• Complete the discussion by the assigned due date.
• Do not claim credit for the words, ideas, and concepts of others.
• Do not copy and paste information or concepts from the Internet and claim that it is your work. It will be considered Plagiarism and you will receive a zero for your work.

## Drills with R on generalized linear models CLNT144 Statistics for Data Science HB

For the Houses data at Index of Datasets consider Y = selling price, x1 = tax bill (in dollars), and x2 = whether the house is new:

Form the scatter plot of y and x1. Then answer, does the normal GLM structure of constant variability in y seem appropriate? If not, how does it seem to be violated?

Using the identity link function, fit the

normal GLM

gamma GLM

For each model, interpret the effect of x2.

For each model, describe how the estimated variability in selling prices varies as the mean selling price varies from 100 thousand to 500 thousand dollars.

Which model is preferred according to AIC?

Datasets needed are at Index of Datasets  http://stat4ds.rwth-aachen.de/data/

Useful functions in R to solve problems in this assignment: read.table, head, glm, summary

## Healthcare Management

Criteria:

a.) Provide clear, concise and thorough responses to each question!

b.) 500 words for each question

c.) Provide evidence for each question and cite sources

Question:

1. Suppose that upon graduating, you accept a position in hospital administration at a large urban hospital. Specifically, your initial job is to allocate resources across two disparate divisions within the hospital: the OB/GYN service and the Psychology Clinic. These two divisions have very little overlap, so \$1 invested in the Psychology Clinic has no direct effect on the OB/GYN service. Suppose you are given a fixed amount of money to hire new physician assistants.
1. Draw a production function for each division (two graphs) of output (number of patients seen) as a function of physician assistants. Assume that capital (i.e., the facility size) is fixed and that both divisions are operating in a productively efficient manner.
2. Referring to your graphs, describe the opportunity cost of devoting \$1 to the Psychology Clinic.
3. Demonstrate on your graphs a set of points (one for each division) that would be allocatively efficient. Explain why you chose these points.
4. Suppose a new technology arises that complements physician assistants in the production of OB/GYN cases. Redraw both production functions. How does the opportunity cost of \$1 of investment in the Psychology Clinic change?  Explain. If the answer is ambiguous, describe the factors that would be important in the answer.
2. Physician assistants have long argued that they have the ability to provide as much as 70% of the medical services provided by primary care physicians at a much lower cost. Yet government regulations, which are called scope of practice laws, limit their ability to work independently of physicians. As we have discussed, these laws vary significantly by state. Consider a potential reform by the federal government in which all statutes limiting the activities of physician assistants were eliminated. Explain in words how such a reform would affect physician wages, physician assistant wages, and quality of care. Prior to the reform, you are asked to study its potential effects. How might you go about forecasting the effects?  What are some limitations to your forecasts?
3. A popular topic in health policy is the issue of price transparency—requirements that physicians, hospitals, and other providers make public the level of charge for various services.
1. Summarize the evidence that exists on the extent to which price transparency measures actually get patients to resort to providers that charge less.
2. As we’ve discussed, charges are not the same as actual payments. What are some practical problems with a price transparency measure that requires the public revelation of payments?
3. Suppose a payment transparency measure were enacted, such that the payment for every claim were made public. What are some ways in which this may change future negotiations between providers and payers over payment levels.
4. Health Maintenance Organizations’ (HMOs) health insurance plans tend to spend considerably less per patient than fee-for-service health insurance plans. Discuss some reasons that this is the case.
5. Suppose the relevant market definition for a nursing home is the zip code. Consult this website developed by Medicare https://www.medicare.gov/care-compare/?providerType=NursingHome&redirect=true

Choose two geographically adjacent nursing home markets that have both for-profit and not-for-profit nursing homes and compute the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) for each market based on the number of licensed beds. In each market, what percentage of the nursing homes are for-profit?  In writing, explain what your results tell you about the degree of market concentration in each market.  What do the HHI figures tell you about any potential price differences that may exist across the two markets? Now recalculate the HHI assuming that the two zip codes constitute one market. Has HHI changed? Why?

Target Audience:

Paper Format:

2,500 words, Double-spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font, with 1” margins around.

## key machine learning and statistical techniques

The following learning outcomes will be assessed:

1. Critically select and apply key machine learning and statistical techniques for data analytics projects across the whole data science lifecycle on modern data science platforms and with data science programming languages.
2. Appropriately characterize the types of data; to perform the pre-processing, transformation, fusion, analysis of a wide range type of data; and to visualize and report the results of the analysis of various types of data.

Important Information

You are required to submit your work within the bounds of the University Infringement of Assessment Regulations (see Programme Guide).  Plagiarism, paraphrasing and downloading large amounts of information from external sources, will not be tolerated and will be dealt with severely.  Although you should make full use of any source material, which would normally be an occasional sentence and/or paragraph (referenced) followed by your own critical analysis/evaluation.  You will receive no marks for work that is not your own. Your work may be subject to checks for originality which can include use of an electronic plagiarism detection service.

Where referencing is required, unless otherwise stated, the Harvard referencing system must be used (see your Programme Guide).

Please ensure that you retain a duplicate of your assignment.  We are required to send samples of student work to the external examiners for moderation purposes.  It will also safeguard in the unlikely event of your work going astray.

 Submission Date and Time As advised on Canvas Submission Location Via Canvas

THIS ASSIGNMENT REQUIRES R CODING AND A SHORT REPORT (65% of module marks)

Your task is to conduct data analysis on a given data set from the UCI site. To help you in this task please look over our past RStudio activities where we loaded in data, pre-processed it, trained machine learning algorithms on the data and plotted the results.

The first part of the report is simply text describing the introduction, application area and data to be used, machine learning algorithms to be used.

What I expect to see for the practical implementation part of the report are screenshots of your code in the RStudio script editor. Screenshots of key outputs and screenshots of important diagrams. Along with text to describe what I’m seeing and identify any salient points. The presentation of your practical work should be identical to the way I’ve presented the Activities in R over the last seven weeks.  You need to use snipping tool in Windows or similar to grab screenshots of selected areas.

Finally, write up your work in a 1,500 word (+/- 10%) report

Student Information

The report should include the following headings:

Report –  (40 marks)

Introduction                                                                                       (10 marks)

Application area and data                                                             (10 marks)

Machine learning algorithms                                                       (10 marks)

Conclusion, structure of report, including refs                    (10 marks)

Practical Implementation – (60 marks)

Pre-processing on real or simulated data                              (10 marks)

R Programming content and your function                           (20 marks)

Display of data/results                                                                   (20 marks)

Source code listing                                                                          (10 marks)

State the R packages you have used, any source code you have used from others. Also, place a full R source listing at back of report – it will not add to word count but DO NOT go over page count of 15 pages

You can refer to any of your course handouts, any other books, journals, online resources etc.

1. Introduction

Your introduction should include a summary of the main points that you will discuss in your report. Your report should outline the area your data is from and what you hope to achieve.  Your introduction should be about 150 words in length.

1. Data used

The purpose of this section is to ensure you understand the types of data and the pre-processing you will use. What types of variables are present such as: integer, dates, strings, etc.  Provide literature and examples associated with your data set. This section should be approximately 150 words.

1. Machine learning methods used

In this section you should identify the machine learning methods that you will apply to the UCI data. What criteria will be used to measure the success of the machine learning methods. This section should be approximately 150 words.

1. Practical: Pre-processing of data

In this section you should discuss how the data was read in, what pre-processing if any occurred and why you did it.  Show me screen shots of code with your text write up. This section should be no more than 150 words in length.

1. Practical: R Programming content

In this section you should show me screen shots of code with your text write up. The R programming content can include building your machine learning models, testing of models, perhaps you have done a compare/contrast with several models.  I would also like to see an R function written by you. The source code should be neat and tidy, use comments where necessary to explain the main actions of your code.  This section should be no more than 300 words in length.

1. Practical: Display of data/results

This section you should use screenshots of key R output, important diagrams and anything to do with your machine learning models. Along with text descriptions of the outputs. It should be no more than 300 words in length.

1. Source code listing

This includes all your R code including the library commands. I expect to be able to load in the libraries you have used and copy and paste and run your analysis.

1. Conclusions

In this section you should summarise your experimental results and findings. This section should be approximately 150 words.

1. References and look and feel of report

These should be to Harvard standards (not included in work count but should be between 5-10 references). References should be valid and appropriate. The formatting of the report should be neat and tidy. Diagrams should be used with good descriptive text. Diagrams should be easy to read, and a sensible number of no more than 6-7 diagrams used. No more than 15 pages in total for everything including source code listings, put source code listing in font size 10.

The word counts for the sections are just advisory based on marks allocated.

Submission Guidelines

Your report should be spell checked and contain references.  You must use the Harvard style of referencing, both for citations within the text and your reference list.  It is important that you read thoroughly the information on the cover sheet regarding the university assessment regulations, including those regarding plagiarism and collusion. Assignment hand-in requirements are specified on the front cover sheet.  The approximate time you should spend on this assignment is 30-50 hours.  Your assignment must be handed in before the time specified. Your assessment will be assessed according to the University’s Postgraduate Generic Assessment Criteria, which are provided on the following pages.

## Liberty University / BMAL 590 / Week 2.2 Business Ethics

Liberty University / BMAL 590 / Week 2.2 Business Ethics
SECTION I
The study of business ethics is important to better understand all of the following except
A that a person’s own moral philosophies and decision-making experiences may not be sufficient to guide
him or her in the business world.
B how and why people make ethical or unethical decisions.
C how to cope with conflicts between a person’s own values and those of the organization in which he or
she works.
D that business ethics is merely an extension of an individual’s own personal ethics.
E how to identify ethical issues that arise in the business world.

## Discussion Forum

Case The FaceBook, Inc, v. ConnectU, Respond to the following questions: Who do you think should be known as one who came up with the original idea for social networking? Which is more important: the idea or the execution of the idea? Identify strategies to best protect against getting beaten to market by a competitor

## Ethical Leadership – BUSI 570

### Course Description

This course focuses upon ethical issues and dilemmas faced by leaders. Definitions of ethical leadership are reviewed as they relate to values and culture. The theory and practice of ethical leadership is evaluated as it pertains to a biblical worldview.

For information regarding prerequisites for this course, please refer to the Academic Course Catalog.

### Rationale

BUSI 570, Ethical Leadership, is an essential course for fulfilling the vision for the Master of Arts in Executive Leadership. One of the stated goals of the BUSI program is to “develop management, leadership and business knowledge within the Christian worldview.” This course explores various ethical issues that business leaders encounter and uses relevant cases, current research, and application-based assignments to develop thoughtful, Biblically-based responses to such issues. The course also directly supports each program learning outcome through the course readings, interactions, and assignments that address ethical leadership.

### Course Assignment

After reading the Course Syllabus and Student Expectations, the student will complete the related checklist found in the Course Overview.

Discussions are collaborative learning experiences. Therefore, the student is required to provide a thread in response to the provided prompt for each discussion. Each thread must be at least 400 words and demonstrate course-related knowledge. Each thread must be supported with 3 scholarly sources as well as the text and Bible and they must be within 3 years. In addition to the thread, the student is required to reply to at least 2 other classmates’ threads. Each reply must be at least 200 words and supported by at least 2 scholarly sources.

The student will write a paragraph explaining the topic choice and create an outline of the case study paper assignment. This assignment must include at least 5 scholarly resources in addition to the course textbooks and the Bible.

The student will write an 8–10-page research-based case study paper in current APA format. The paper can be considered an addition to Hess & Cameron’s text in that the student will review an organization and a biblical value that the organization has displayed. The paper must include at least 5 references in addition to the course textbooks and the Bible.

Students will create a training presentation based on the Case Study: Paper Assignment. The presentation should be at least 10 slides and include at least 5 scholarly resources in addition to the Bible. This presentation will be a PowerPoint presentation that trains new employees on the values of the company.

After reading each module: week’s selected readings from the Rae and Wong text, the student will answer the accompanying questions that correspond to the reading. The student will use the template provided to answer the questions. The journal must be first person and demonstrate thoughtful reflection—no additional research or APA formatting is required.

## Protecting the Unborn at Work

#### Protecting the Unborn at Work

Description
Read the Case 9.4 – Protecting the Unborn at Work on pp. 357-360 and address the questions on p. 360 in a three-to-five-page paper (excluding title, abstract, and reference pages) include at least three peer reviewed sources found in the Potomac Library properly cited and referenced.

Please use APA style (7th edition) with double line spacing and Times New Roman 12-point font.

Please use this strategy when you analyze a case:

1. Identify and write the main issues found discussed in the case (who, what, how, where and when (the critical facts in a case).

2. List all indicators (including stated “problems”) that something is not as expected or as desired.

3. Briefly analyze the issue with theories found in your textbook or other academic materials. Decide which ideas, models, and theories seem useful. Apply these conceptual tools to the situation. As new information is revealed, cycle back to steps 1 and 2.

4. Identify the areas that need improvement (use theories from your textbook)

o Specify and prioritize the criteria used to choose action alternatives.

o Discover or invent feasible action alternatives.

o Examine the probable consequences of action alternatives.

o Select a course of action.

o Design and implementation plan/schedule.

o Create a plan for assessing the action to be implemented.

5. Conclusion (every paper should end with a strong conclusion or summary)

Please use APA style (7th edition) with double line spacing and Times New Roman 12-point font.

Writing Requirements

3–5 pages in length (excluding cover page, abstract, and reference list)
APA format, Use the APA template located in the Student Resource Center to complete the assignment.
Please use the Case Study Guide as a reference point for writing your case study.

## Assignment help students

This assignment will help students learn how to find, cite, analyze, and summarize a scholarly research article. For each step of the assignment, type your responses directly into the text fields provided. Notes for each part indicate where to find more information in the seventh edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association or on the APA Style website.

# Step 1:Select two articles provided by your instructor

Outside this assignment, the best place to find a reliable research article is in a peer-reviewed scholarly journal accessed from a research database or platform, such as APA PsycNet, ProQuest, OvidSP, or EBSCOhost. Check with your university library to see which platforms and databases your school has access to and which ones are recommended for your subject area. APA journals are a good starting point for students of psychology. Many types of research articles are published in scholarly journals, including quantitative studies, qualitative studies, and mixed methods studies. In general, research articles have the following characteristics:

• report original, or primary, research
• include distinct sections that reflect the stages of the research process, usually the following sections in the following order:
• Introduction: description of the purpose of the investigation and the issues being reported, review of the background literature, and study objectives and/or hypotheses
• Method: full description of each step of the study, including the materials used, procedures followed, research design, and flow of participants
• Results (quantitative article): report of the results of statistical analyses conducted
• Findings (qualitative article): report of the findings using natural language
• Discussion: summary of the study, including any interpretation, limitations, and implications of the results or findings and next steps

Chapters 1 and 3 of the Publication Manual provide descriptions of research articles and the sections often included in them, respectively.

Article #1

## Step 2:Citing a Research Article

Once you have identified a research article, create its reference list entry and in-text citation.

Reference List Entry

To create a reference list entry, gather the following information:

1. Author(s):
2. Year of publication:
3. Title of article:
4. Journal name:
5. Volume number:
6. Issue number (if available):
7. Page range or article number:
8. DOI:

Now, use the information to create a reference list entry according to the journal article reference examples.

1. Reference list entry:

In-Text Citation

Use the author and year information from your reference list entry to create the in-text citations.

1. Parenthetical in-text citation:
2. Narrative in-text citation:

Step 3: Analyzing a Research Article

Research articles are typically dense with information. The following questions will provide an organized way for you to break down the parts of the research article and understand its purpose, methods, findings, and implications.

Introduction

1. What is the topic of the article?
2. What is the hypothesis or hypotheses of the study?
3. What type of research study is it (e.g., quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods)?

Method

1. How many participants were in the study?
2. Who were the participants in the study? Describe from where they were recruited, any defining characteristics, etc.
3. Where was the study conducted (e.g., in a lab, at a university, in participants’ homes)?
4. What measures were collected in the study?
5. What analyses were conducted in the study (e.g., correlation analysis, analysis of variance, thematic analysis)?

Results or Findings

1. What are the main results or findings from the study?
2. If there are tables or figures in the paper, what type(s) of tables and/or figures are they? What important information do they convey?

Discussion

1. What are the main conclusions of the research?
2. To whom do the results or findings apply? Can they be generalized to all people in all places, to certain subsets of people, or something else?
3. What are limitations of the study?

Step 4: Paraphrasing a Research Article

Now that you have analyzed its content, paraphrase important information from the research article in your own words. Keep each paraphrase to one sentence if possible. For example, you could summarize the methodology (how the research was conducted) or participants in the study, a key result or finding, or the applications or importance of the research. Use these paraphrased summaries when writing your own papers (e.g., literature reviews or response papers) to describe existing research. For each paraphrase, include either the parenthetical in-text citation or the narrative in-text citation to the research article (as shown in Step 2).

1. Method section paraphrase:
2. Results or Findings section paraphrase:
3. Discussion section

Article #2

## Step 2:Citing a Research Article

Once you have identified a research article, create its reference list entry and in-text citation.

Reference List Entry

To create a reference list entry, gather the following information:

1. Author(s):
2. Year of publication:
3. Title of article:
4. Journal name:
5. Volume number:
6. Issue number (if available):
7. Page range or article number:
8. DOI:

Now, use the information to create a reference list entry according to the journal article reference examples.

1. Reference list entry:

In-Text Citation

Use the author and year information from your reference list entry to create the in-text citations.

1. Parenthetical in-text citation:
2. Narrative in-text citation:

Step 3: Analyzing a Research Article

Research articles are typically dense with information. The following questions will provide an organized way for you to break down the parts of the research article and understand its purpose, methods, findings, and implications.

Introduction

1. What is the topic of the article?
2. What is the hypothesis or hypotheses of the study?
3. What type of research study is it (e.g., quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods)?

Method

1. How many participants were in the study?
2. Who were the participants in the study? Describe from where they were recruited, any defining characteristics, etc.
3. Where was the study conducted (e.g., in a lab, at a university, in participants’ homes)?
4. What measures were collected in the study?
5. What analyses were conducted in the study (e.g., correlation analysis, analysis of variance, thematic analysis)?

Results or Findings

1. What are the main results or findings from the study?
2. If there are tables or figures in the paper, what type(s) of tables and/or figures are they? What important information do they convey?

Discussion

1. What are the main conclusions of the research?
2. To whom do the results or findings apply? Can they be generalized to all people in all places, to certain subsets of people, or something else?
3. What are limitations of the study?

Step 4: Paraphrasing a Research Article

Now that you have analyzed its content, paraphrase important information from the research article in your own words. Keep each paraphrase to one sentence if possible. For example, you could summarize the methodology (how the research was conducted) or participants in the study, a key result or finding, or the applications or importance of the research. Use these paraphrased summaries when writing your own papers (e.g., literature reviews or response papers) to describe existing research. For each paraphrase, include either the parenthetical in-text citation or the narrative in-text citation to the research article (as shown in Step 2).

1. Method section paraphrase:
2. Results or Findings section paraphrase:
3. Discussion section

## Quantitative research appraisal paper on my POI of diabetes management in pregnancy

Description
Quantitative research appraisal paper on my POI of diabetes management in pregnancy
It’s no more than 6 pages excluding title page, reference page and attachments
I believe external slices can be used. However, I need to have 2 quantitative resource articles regarding the POI. The 2 articles I sent you, were you able to view?