How to Write a Research Paper Fast?

Who Can Write My Research Paper Fast?

Procrastination is not a new notion to most students. Since you have waited until the eleventh hour to start working on the research paper, it is quite essential that you learn how to complete the academic paper in a short amount of time.

Most individuals cannot function well under pressure and tend to sacrifice the content’s quality to complete it in time. What if, despite the fact that it is a last-minute essay, you are still able to perform well and compose a solid research paper?

In order to meet tight deadlines while writing term papers, you might follow certain particular methods. Of course, there are no precise restrictions to this; feel free to integrate what works best for you in this strategy. Simply said, it is preparatory work that is essential before you can get started. You are definitely at the right place. The Tutors at AssignmentGiant are ready for you. Will you shoot them a message?

how to write a research paper fast

Create a Good Writing Environment or Setting

The setting has a huge impact on how long it will take you to complete your project.

As a result, you must locate the best location to help the thinking and writing processes and get you in the mood to begin.

Consider the following when doing so:

Environment Free of Distraction

Have you ever wished to concentrate on your studies but were unable to do so because of background noise? Everyone was present. But you don’t have much time on your hands this time. Get rid of all distractions and get to work. Find a quiet area where you may work without being bothered.

Some people find that listening to music helps them concentrate. That is ideal if you know what helps you focus. It would be beneficial if you could work for a couple of hours in a relaxing environment. Locate a place that will allow you to do so. It might be a library or a park. Depending on your preferences.

Proper Lighting

Adequate lighting is essential not just for writing but also for improving your thinking process. If your chosen location is near a window, use the sun as your lighting source. If not, make sure you have adequate light to illuminate the workspace. This also keeps you from being fatigued as soon.

Bring Your Supplies Needed

Even if you have not left the house and are working from home, you’ll need materials. This can include a computer, paper, pen, books, highlighter, or anything else that will help you write.

Don’t forget to bring your water bottle. Keep them close by so you don’t have to leave them over and again when you need them. This will expedite the procedure and save you from being exhausted from unneeded effort.

Pre-Writing Tips for Research Paper

First and foremost, look over the allotted assignment and understand the important topics. Before beginning, it is critical to comprehend the guidelines. This involves understanding the word limit, formatting, and citation style. APA and MLA are the two most often utilized formats. After that, plan the time you can find in your schedule to commit to this college assignment.

Planning Your Time

How much time do you have to complete this research paper? This will assist you in allocating time to each component of your task. Assume you have 30 minutes. Use 10 minutes to outline and build a framework, 15 minutes to write, and the final 5 minutes to review and edit.

If you have more time, you can rearrange the divide. The rule is to devote at least one-fifth of the remaining time to producing an outline and the other half to structuring and composing the main body.

Pick a Topic You Have Already Worked With

Your instructor may occasionally assign research paper themes to you. Other times, you will be lucky enough to have the freedom to do so yourself. If this is the case, plan ahead of time so that you may save a substantial amount of time overall. If you opt to experiment this time, it may end out well, but your odds of finishing on time are minimal.

Instead, choose a topic on which you have already worked and conducted research. This will save you a lot of time and give you a good sense of which path to choose. If you have any notes or links saved on your computer, now is the time to retrieve them.

How do I Select a New Topic for Your Research Paper?

If you lack experience in this area, you may lose an advantage, but you may still catch up.

Idea generation

Consider a topic that piques your curiosity. This will keep you motivated throughout the study paper. It will also take less time to fully comprehend this concept.

You may also utilize the internet to obtain examples of good themes that are thought-provoking and will help you get good scores. Make sure that anything you pick is neither too broad nor too particular. By not having a defined focus, your work may become chaotic and without direction. Being overly concentrated may result in insufficient research to work with. Consider the middle ground. For help with good topics, you can check here

Conduct In-Depth Research and Take Quick Notes

Do not worry if you don’t have any previous notes. Take out your laptop and begin your search. A crucial guideline to remember here is to not rely just on one source. Find as much information on the issue as you can. This will help you later on to substantiate your thesis statement. Some useful resources include Wikipedia, Google Scholar, government papers, encyclopedias, and internet databases.

Keep taking notes when you go through all of the key files. This way, you won’t miss anything vital. You may also use mind maps and web diagrams to meticulously put down significant ideas.

Remember to take notes on these sources; you’ll need them in your references section at the conclusion of your research work. To avoid plagiarism in the final submission, you should always paraphrase this content.

Create an Outline

Do you know why so many students struggle to write an effective research paper? This is due to the fact that they do not devote any time to planning and outlining.

Time spent writing is vital, but so is this stage. You would have done a lot of brainstorming throughout the ideation phase. These thoughts should be organized and ordered.

Making a template ahead of time will save you time and speed up the writing process. Make an attempt to order your disorganized ideas. After you have established a well-structured outline, you can devote the remainder of your time to perfecting the thesis statement. As a result, make sure that your overview and main points support it rather than contradict it at any time.

Writing Process

Now that you have completed all of the pre-writing processes, it’s time to get started on the report. However, because you are short on time, you should not omit this step.

At the end, you will always need to look through your written work again. Take this as your first draft. This is where you will provide all of the important information in a logical order. Include in-text citations whenever you believe they are necessary.

You will get a raw collection of all the essential arguments and evidence after incorporating everything in this document. You will need to polish this up to make it acceptable and worthy of submission.

The Abstract

The first sentence the reader will encounter is an abstract. It should include all of the highlights of your article as well as the purpose. This must be a concise and brief section to prepare the audience for what is to come. It is typically 300 words or fewer.

The order should contain the purpose of the study, the design, the significant findings, and a summary of your conclusions and interpretations.

To improve this section, consider yourself in the shoes of another researcher. Then go through this section. Consider if you would want to proceed after reading this abstract if you were in their shoes. Go forward if you are satisfied and believe you have supplied enough information to entice them to read further.


Always begin with the topic and why it is intriguing. Establish your research problem effectively. Following that, provide some background information on the topic you choose. Then, describe briefly why you choose the piece and its relevance.

Also, discuss the previous work done by scholars in the subject. You should also describe your method to dealing with the problem. Finally, conclude the first paragraph with a concise and unambiguous thesis statement.

Thesis Statement

This is the paragraph’s final sentence. You may complete the full research paper correctly, but you will never receive a high grade unless you have a great thesis statement. This paragraph serves as the foundation for the entire academic article.

It must be very specific; a two-sentence summary of the analysis or argument to follow. The topic may alter as you continue to write. At the end, you would have to amend this statement. When you’re at this point, be cautious. Before proceeding, you should probably consult with your teacher.

The Body Paragraphs

This is when you should be referring to your outline. Examine all of the points you underlined throughout the research step. You will quickly see the importance of doing so in terms of saving time and preserving organization. Always return to your thesis statement to verify that every point you make is related to it.

Every new paragraph should begin with a subject sentence. You must explain why this assertion is accurate and give evidence to back it up. Using quotations is another great approach to connect your arguments. Do not forget to gather your information from reliable sources.

Consider each paragraph to be a mini-essay. Before concluding, bring each point to a close. Nonetheless, all of these must be consistent with and support the thesis statement.

Arriving at a Logical Conclusion

You must reach a conclusion after finishing the analysis. You may accomplish this by restating the thesis. Avoid redundancy by summarizing your paper.

In this area, do not include any facts or numbers. You can also decide how strongly you believe the points you used to support your thesis statement.

Suggestions for intriguing ideas to aid future study are also an excellent approach to conclude this conclusion.

You must compose this so that the readers understand why and how your study is important to them. It is more than a synopsis; rather, it is a synthesis of the key themes. You must highlight the larger ramifications of the research. In most circumstances, one short paragraph will serve, while more may be necessary. Check ahead of time.

Cite Sources

The requirement for citation distinguishes a research article from any other academic document. You must provide a list of sources used throughout the text or a bibliography at the conclusion of this report. APA, MLA, or Chicago format should be used depending on your teacher’s taste and instructions.

This is an important phase in your research study. Every claim you’ve made up to this point must be supported by these. Giving credit where credit is due.

Who can Write My Research Paper Fast?

Editing and revising are two important procedures to do before submitting your research work. This is critical for assisting you in improving the structure and content. Furthermore, proofreading is also vital.

Revise and Edit

Reread your work to confirm that it is accurate. Due to time constraints, it is not necessary to submit the initial draft. Make certain that any grammatical and spelling errors are corrected.

Grammarly is a wonderful tool for saving time in this situation. It is software that automatically corrects many of the mistakes you make as you go. The remainder have been recognized and highlighted.

Checking the flow and logic of your article is equally important for boosting its quality. The transitions between paragraphs must be seamless and consistent. Remove any repetitious sentences and filler words while you’re at it. Your paper should be brief and to the point. Reading this article aloud is a great approach to spot any syntactic mistakes.

Check for Plagiarism

This should be your final step before submitting your work. You may have lifted content from a source, even if unconsciously. This will be reflected in your report upon submission. It is a very unethical activity that might have a negative impact on your grade. It is preferable to be safe than sorry.

Use a plagiarism detection program such as Turnitin to check your work. If it passes the test, it is ready to go. You now understand the quickest and simplest methods for dealing with any type of research paper. Of course, you should split the time better the next time, but if you don’t, for whatever reason, there’s no need to be concerned. The preceding stages will prepare you to deal with such a circumstance.

Best wishes!

How to Write a Poetry Analysis Essay: Tips, Outline, Steps and Structure

Poetry analysis, akin to poetry evaluation, is studying a poet’s vocabulary and figures of speech. It also comprises discussing personal thoughts on the poem and dissecting the poetic instruments used by the artist. However, it is not only about the words.

It requires reading between the lines and determining what inspired the poet to write a specific poem. As a result, some background study on the author and the history of the poem’s production may be required.

You should not fret, we can handle all of your academic requirements! If you believe you do not have enough time to finish the task, contact us to get a custom essay online. Our essay writing service has a great deal of expertise with this sort of job. We provide a variety of free tips and blogs to assist you so that you may devote more time to the vital things. If you are still unsure, you can quickly check the Sitejabber review.

poetry analysis

Poetry is the rhythmic flow of emotions expressed via words and cadence. Poetry has been around for hundreds of years and is still a popular way to communicate ideas, convey feelings, and create imagery. It has served as a vehicle for expressing affection for someone near, marveling at natural wonders, and sharing thoughts on society and its various facets. Poetry is now an important aspect of art and culture.

Poetry is an immortal form of literary art, read and recited for centuries on end, from Shakespeare’s sonnets to T.S. Eliot’s contemplation on the human state. Poetry analysis is a significant and vital undertaking that needs thorough examination. Even the most simple of poetry is made up of numerous pieces. Some are constructed with rhythmic lines, while others are bound by meter, which is the rhythmic stress on a line. Overall, poetry analysis necessitates examination of the rhythm scheme, the imagery shown, mimesis, onomatopoeia, and all of the literary elements that give a poem its flavor.

Poetry Analysis Essay: Tips, Steps and Structure

Poems have a magnificent aspect that is delightful and appealing to the ear, from rhythmic rhymes to flowing phrases. To properly comprehend a poem, though, we must dissect it and comprehend the factors that drive it. Analyzing any poem is THE MOST IMPORTANT ASPECT OF CREATING A PERFECT POETRY ANALYSIS ESSAY, and it necessitates. The article is standard, containing an introduction, body, and conclusion. So, without further ado, let’s dive into the complexities of writing an outstanding poetry analysis essay.

Poetry Analysis

A poem is made up of several distinct pieces, each of which must be carefully examined in order to comprehend the topic inside the form. We begin by disassembling the poem to examine its structure, shape, language, metrical rhythm, and underlying topic. Only then can we fully comprehend and enjoy the information.

Five Important Elements in Poetry Analysis

  1. Theme/Subject: A poem’s subject is the underlying concept or context that characterizes it. The fundamental vision or subject matter that the verses discuss and must be well grasped.
  2. Language: The language of a poem, from diction to imagery, contributes to the mood and tone of the poem. Language influences the flow of the poetry and helps to express thoughts and emotions.
  3. Sound and Rhythm: The metrical pattern of the poem is created by the patterns of syllables and stresses on specific portions.
  4. Structure: The structure of a poem impacts how it should be read. A poet usually shapes the tale and expresses concepts using stanzas, line breaks, rhyme patterns, punctuation, and pauses.
  5. Context: A poem’s context defines its subject: who, what, where, when, and why.

A detailed roadmap is required to discover and comprehend all of these complexities. So, let us go through those processes and advice in greater depth.

Steps and Tips for Writing A Great Poetry Analysis Essay

Poetry analysis essays are similar to analytical essays in that authors must analyze a poem in depth and examine all of its aesthetic, functional, and structural elements. Here are some excellent guidelines for analyzing poetry.

1. Start by Reading OUT LOUD

At least once, but preferably twice, read through the poem in its entirety. First, read it aloud as it should be read and carefully listen to it. While reading aloud, pay attention to the structural, functional, and rhythmic features. Then, browse through it slowly and absorb all of the intricacies and peculiarities that distinguish the content.

Reading a poem aloud might help you understand the rhythmic rhythms. Reading aloud allows one to see how the words, syllables, and important aspects form the rhythm and flow. If at all possible, videotape the poetry’s recital and listen to it with rapt attention. Pay close attention to the word flow inside the rhythm, from line to line, between pauses, and whenever there is stress. Also, read the title and grasp how it connects to the main point.

2. Map the Rhyme Scheme, If Any

You do not need to invest a lot of effort to determine whether a poem employs free verse or a rhythmic scheme, which means it does not have any rhythmic features or regular meter. Free verse is also known as unrhymed poetry.

If a poem has a rhythmic pattern, assign a letter to each line that has the same rhythm. Then, read it aloud several times or attentively listen to recitals to find the rhythm patterns. Take notice of any specific design or formal rhyme system, such as alternative rhyme, ballade, monorhyme, linked rhyme, terza rima, triplet, and so on.

3. Scanning the Poem’s Metrics

The technique of scanning and evaluating the meter of a poem is called scansion, and it requires scanning. The sequence of stressed and unstressed syllables on each line of a poem is referred to as the poem’s meter. Put an asterisk next to each stressed syllable that is followed by at least one unstressed syllable. After that, you will need to determine the meter based on your observations and then mark the distribution of stresses along a line.

4. Understanding the Poem Structure

In this step is to analyze the structure of the poem as it is written down. Examine the poem’s design aspects, such as the white spaces surrounding the words. Examine all of the structures inside the material to see if they correspond to the ideas and concepts they are trying to portray. Is the end of a line, for example, the end of an idea, or does it use enjambment? Are all of the verses consistent with the general tone and rhythm of the poem? Take careful note of all of these details since they are crucial to the topic of your essay.

5. Determine the Poem’s Form and Understanding its Language

Poets consciously use a range of diction, literary strategies, and specialized features to establish pace, develop rhythm, and communicate various ideas. Determine the shape of the poem by identifying all such poetic components and literary subtleties. A sonnet, for example, consists of three four-line stanzas followed by a couplet. There are other different formal styles of poetry, each with its own distinct characteristics.

Examine each word in a certain line. Take note of its relevance to the sentence and the larger plot and theme of the poem. Be cognizant of how the poet shapes the poem with metaphors, similes, alliteration, assonance, and other figurative languages.

6. Careful Study of Poem’s Content

Interpret the poem’s message with great care as you examine it. Examine the material and the message it attempts to convey. Discover the poem’s topic and date of composition to better grasp its historical context. Discover where it was written and the poet’s background. All of these information will help you completely understand and appreciate the poetry. Your poetry analysis essay must include all of these material in great depth.

7. Finding out the Poem’s Protagonist

Make an effort to identify the person whose thoughts are being expressed in the poetry. Is the poetry written in the first, second, or third person? What tone does the narrator use to communicate information? The process of studying the poetry from a personal standpoint will be aided by the identification of these aspects.

8. Paraphrasing the Poem, Line By Line

It is finally time to paraphrase the poem word by line. Begin at the beginning and convert each line. Writing down the summary of the poetry with proper interpretation as you go is what paraphrasing entails. Once finished, read the poem from beginning to end to fully comprehend its significance. Your poetry analysis essay will be based on the paraphrase and analysis. However, before concluding this topic, consider the typical form of a poetry analysis essay.

How to Choose a Topic for a Poetry Analysis Essay?

  • In the subject of the poem, we mostly concentrate on the reasons such as why the poem was created or what it is all about.
  • What is the poem’s context, or core content?
  • Who authored the poem and why was it written?
  • When and where did the poet create the poem, what or who influenced the poet, and what are the poem’s main features?

A topic should be picked depending on the theme for which you intend to write. The poem’s topic is the message it is attempting to express. You must thus seek for thoughts and conceptions that appear in the poem and create an acceptable topic based on those perceptions or ‘feelings.’ If you are still unsure about what topic to choose for your analysis, it is advised that you go through other poems comparable to yours to find a suitable theme. Do not forget to properly cite your poetry. Also, when citing from the poetry, use in-text citations.

Poem Analysis Essay Outline

It is necessary to figure out the framework of a poetry analysis essay in order to make the writing stage easier and faster.

Here is an outline of a poem analysis essay to use:

Opening paragraph – Introduce the Poem, title, author and background.

Body of text – Make most of the analysis, linking ideas and referencing to the poem.

Conclusion – State one main idea, feelings and meanings

Poem Analysis Essay Introduction

Include the title of the poem and the author in the opening of a poetry analysis essay. Other facts, such as the date it was published, can also be included. Then give some background information and intriguing facts or trivia about the poem or author.

Poem Analysis Essay Body

When composing the main body of text, bear in mind that you must reference all concepts from the poetry, therefore add a citation to back up the statement; otherwise, the comparison will be a waste of time and will not count. Make your points clearly.

Poem Analysis Essay Conclusion

Now is the time to pull back from dissecting the poem’s separate components and consider its overall significance. Combine the many aspects of the study and provide one core notion. What is the poet attempting to express, and how and with what emotion is it conveyed?

Then consider the meaning and how this evolves over time. Is it evident from the start, for example, or does it progressively shift towards the end? The final few lines of a poem can be quite crucial, thus they should be included in the poetry analysis essay conclusion and remarked on their influence on the work. Remember, you can always send us a “write an essay for me” message and we will do your task for you.

Form of the Poem

Poems are written in several ways; here, one must determine the structure the poet employed for the poem. Poem forms include stanzas, rhythm, punctuation, and rhymes. Examine the length and number of stanzas, if the rhythm affects the meaning of the poem, whether there are many punctuations or few, whether the rhyme is constant or broken, and whether the rhyme contributes to the content of the poem or is it random.

Theme, Meaning or Message of the Poem

In this part, we focus on the topic, main issue or idea of the poem. There are layers of meaning hidden in a poem.

  • Meaning: surface meaning that what is actually or physically happening in the poem which a reader can sense.
  • Deeper Meaning: the central idea of the poem or what is it actually about.
  • Theme: in poetry, there is always a hidden meaning in every line, which depicts the message about life.

Poems can address a wide range of subjects, including love, life, death, birth, nature, memory, war, age, sexuality, experience, religion, race, faith, creator, and many more.

Tone of the Poem

The tone of the poem expresses the poet’s attitude or mood through the language he uses.

For example, is the language of the poem formal, judgemental, informal, critical, positive, bitter, contemplative, solemn, frustrated, hopeful, sardonic, contemptuous, regretful, or morbid?

Literary Device used in the Poem

Learn about the many literary strategies and figures of speech employed by the poet. Analyze these approaches and suggest their use in the poet’s poem. A symbol, similes, metaphors, alliteration, allegories, oxymorons, assonances, dissonances, repetition, exaggeration, and irony can all be found in a poem.

Conclusion or Feel of the Poem

Finally, consider the poet’s emotions and sentiments in relation to the poem, as well as how you feel when you read it. This is the most important phase of assessing a poem because we examine the inner depth of the poem, the poet’s goal and sentiments, the targeted audience, and if the poem reflects the poet’s persona, perspective, or does not fit the poet.

How to Write an Effective Poem Analysis Essay with Different Types

When writing a poetry analysis essay, an author might select from a variety of types of poetry. Haiku and epic poems are two types of poetry. As a result, while evaluating poetry, the author’s form plays a key part in deciding the approach of the analysis. A haiku’s 5-7-5 structure must be considered while studying it.

This pattern essentially indicates that the first line in each stanza has five syllables, the second has seven syllables, and the third has five syllables. Haiku poetry, for example, comprises three lines and 17 syllables. When assessing an epic, one must evaluate its extended narrative framework, in which the poet narrates historical figures’ extraordinary accomplishments and experiences.

How to Cite Poetry and Use Quotes in a Poem Analysis Essay

A poem, as a literary piece, can be used as a source for an academic study. A student can identify distinct components of poetry to convey a point in an educational poem analysis essay.

Essentially, these pieces encompass the previously mentioned technological features. As a result, students must reference the poem as well as the particular location within the poem’s structure where they found the piece they are mentioning.

When referencing a poem in MLA format, for example, the poet’s last name must be listed first, followed by the line or lines in the poem where the information mentioned originated. In turn, whatever knowledge a student mentions when studying poetry must be surrounded by quote marks.

Meaning of a Deep Poem Analysis Essay

There are several techniques of analysing a literary piece, including a poem. A superficial analysis, for example, is when someone chooses the most important facts from a book and expands on them. However, this form of analysis demonstrates a lack of in-depth comprehension of a book. A deep analysis extends beyond the obvious facts to explore other elements that would be useless in a shallow study.

These elements also include the author’s background, the period the poem was written, imagery, and other technical aspects (as named above). These aspects impact not just the meaning of poetry but also how someone interprets it while examining it. As a result, a casual reader who overlooks these components will be unable to fully comprehend the author’s purpose while studying a poem.

A Poetry Analysis Essay Template

The template or outline for a poetry analysis essay is provided below. All of your analysis’s findings must be presented coherently in the essay forms listed below.

1. Author and title of the poem.

2. Form & Stylistic Elements: romanticism, realism, symbolism, etc., literary devices & figurative languages; structural features

3. Genre: epigram, epitaph, sonnet, etc.

4. The history of the poem’s creation- when it was written, for what reason, to whom it was dedicated. Mention the importance of this same poem in the poet’s life and career.

5. Theme, Main Idea, Subject or Background:

6. Description of the Protagonist or Primary Subject

7. The Poet’s Vocabulary- (whether it’s casual & colloquial, bookish, aristocratic, rustic neutral, journalistic).

8. Composition of the work. Examine the micro-theme of each stanza and how it relates to the larger piece. Highlight the important portions of the poem, demonstrate their connections, and assess the poem’s emotional appeal;

9. Your Perspectives

A poetry analysis essay should be able to precisely analyse a poem. Simultaneously, the presentation of all material in an essay should be engaging and intuitive. Readers should be able to read both the poetry and the piece simultaneously and comprehend everything. So there you have it! I hope the preceding rules and recommendations help you write an exceptional poetry analysis essay. If critical analyses appear to be too difficult, there’s no need to worry or search for a poetry analysis website.

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Even if poetry is not a standard literary work, when writing a poem analysis essay, it must be approached as academic writing. As a result, some suggestions for a poetry analysis essay include:

  • Read poetry at least twice attentively.
  • Discover the context of the poem, such as the author’s history and the time period in which it was written.
  • Identify essential phrases, which the poet repeats in each verse.
  • Define the subject matter by focusing on the theme, tone, mood, and meaning of the poem.
  • Create many thoughts about what the poet is attempting to say and choose one.
  • Avoid views and conjectures by concentrating on verifiable facts.

What are the Parts of a Research Paper?

The purpose of having clearly defined portions of a research paper is not to make your life as a student more difficult. In reality, it’s just the reverse.

The many elements of a research paper have been designed to give a structure that can be utilized regularly to make your research projects easier while also assisting you in adhering to good scientific methods.

This will aid your writing process by allowing you to concentrate on crucial areas one at a time. It will also offer you with a useful outline on which to arrange your task.

A strong framework will make your research paper easier to grasp, as well as prepare you for a prospective career as a researcher, because all current science is built on similar precepts.

Have you recently struggled with your academic homework, particularly the many elements of a research paper?

This is a very common situation, so we have written this article to outline all of the key parts of a research paper and explain what you should focus on as you go through each of the various parts of a research paper; read the following sections and you should have a better idea of how to tackle your next research paper effectively.

A research paper consists of 10 parts: cover page, table of content, abstract, introduction, methodology, data analysis, findings and discussion, conclusion, reference, and appendix section. All these parts of research paper are arranged in a way that shows flow of the paper from one section to the other.

parts of research paper

Sections of a Research Paper in APA Style

Parts of a Research Paper

1. Cover page

The cover page is the first page of an excellent research paper format. The cover page is the opening page of the research paper and includes information about the writer/author.

These information include the title of the paper, the author’s name, the name of the university/affiliated institution, the name of the professor, the year, and any acknowledgements.

A research paper’s structure is incomplete without a cover page. Writing the cover page is a simple task.

2. Table of contents

Writing a table of contents is normally done after the paper is finished, however the author might choose to update it while entering the various sections. Tables of contents and research paper sections are entirely at the discretion of the author.

After finishing a research paper, some people like to include a table of contents. Others want to have their table of contents updated often to prevent doing too much editing and feeling rushed to finish the assignment.

A table of contents lists all of the items in a research paper. All primary headings and sub-headings are included in the list of items. Headings for levels I, II, III, and IV are written in.

A research paper may include an unlimited number of layers of headers. Each document may differ in terms of heading levels depending on the formatting style used.

The table of contents, on the other hand, is frequently populated in a similar fashion.

3. Abstract

An abstract is a brief synopsis of a research study. It goes over the study technique, which includes sample procedures, data gathering, data analysis, results and findings, and conclusions.

In the abstract, a research article will typically include a one-sentence purpose or goal, followed by methodology. Depending on the topic or type of writing, the abstract length ranges from 150 to 300 words.

4. Introduction

The writer focuses on the topic of interest in the beginning portion of a research paper.

This is the section of your research paper where you are supposed to offer your thesis statement; this is basically a description of what you want to accomplish with your research project, including the issues you want to investigate and any answers or recommendations you have in mind.

5. Background/review of the literature

The background segment presents recent research findings on the topic or thesis. In this section, the researcher examines the literature to demonstrate why their planned study is necessary.

Perhaps there is a vacuum in the literature and further study is required to understand the link between the research factors. This section of a research paper is intended to offer the theoretical framework developed throughout your investigation.

You will be asked to provide the sources you researched while preparing for the job ahead, and these sources must be academically respectable (including educational books, peer-reviewed journals, and other relevant publications).

You must provide the names of the relevant authors you’ve researched as well as a correctly structured citation that specifically refers to the works you’ve examined, including the publication year (APA style citations).

6. Research Methodology

A research paper’s structure is incomplete without technique (research design). The body of a research article consists of sampling techniques, data gathering criteria, data analysis, findings, and discussion parts.

This section is often used to detail the actions you followed and the subjects you recruited to carry out the study. Varied sections of a research report have different goals, and you must specify the particular methodologies you utilized during your study. Typical approaches include direct observation, laboratory experimentation, and statistical analyses. Whatever approaches you use, you must openly state them in this area.

7. Data analysis

While all sections of a research report are significant, this one is perhaps the most relevant in terms of practical application. Out of all the sections of a research paper, this one requires you to evaluate the data you gathered during your study.

This is your opportunity to really shine by bringing new facts that may help to the common understanding of the issues you have explored. At this point, you are not expected to evaluate your data (that will be done later in the research report), but rather to present it objectively. Depending on the research design, data analysis might be qualitative or quantitative.

Analyzing data entails generating conclusions from it by manipulating it using statistical methods or any other type of data analysis. Most students believe that data analysis is the most difficult component of writing a research paper since it involves precision and dealing with complex calculations. Poor data analysis procedures may result in erroneous conclusions, compromising the validity and dependability of your study.

8. Findings and discussion/Results

When discussing the findings of a research study, the results must be compared to existing literature. Do the findings support or refute existing knowledge in the field? That is the primary goal of new study.

From all the parts of a research paper, this is the one where you’re expected to actually analyze the data you have gathered while researching. This analysis should be consistent with your previously stated methodology, and it should highlight any implications suggested by your data that may be relevant to other fields of study, as well as any flaws in your approach that would allow you to improve your results if you were to repeat the same type of research.

The authors can additionally discuss the significance of the findings. It is necessary to explain what can be drawn from the study’s findings and how they might be used in policymaking. Apart from the two mentioned difficulties, the discussion portion of a study report outlines prospective future research that new researchers may wish to examine.

It is also customarily necessary to highlight the limits of a research publication in order for other researchers to comprehend the context of the study findings. Explaining a paper’s limits demonstrates how the findings may have been influenced by other external influences and to what extent?

9. Conclusion

As you finish your research paper, you should briefly reaffirm your thesis statement, as well as your methodology and analyzed data – by bringing all of these aspects together, you will achieve the goal of your study, so all that remains is to clearly declare your findings.

The conclusion section summarizes a study’s findings and explains the researchers’ last comments.

Were the findings correct?

What is the paper’s overarching implication?

What is the next step in future research?

Could the findings influence policymaking?

These are some of the questions that a research paper conclusion must address.

10. Reference Page

Following the conclusion, the reference list is written on a new page.

The greater the number of sources listed, the longer the list and the more rigorous the investigation. More information on different referencing styles may be found here:

How to Format a Research Paper in the APA Style

The number of references in an article is determined by the journal’s publication preferences.

Individual university standards for their students can influence referencing style.

11. Appendix

For most people, the appendix is a less glamorous research paper section. The appendix is a component that contains statistics and statistical data that may have been employed in the research study.

It appears at the very end of a research study. If the study selects to incorporate the figures inside the other previous sections, a research paper structure can be completed without appendices.

What do I include in Appendix section of a Research Paper?

Tables and Figures

Graphs and data (optional in certain situations) — Tables and/or Figures may be included depending on the sort of study being conducted (however, in some cases, there may be neither).

Each Table and Figure is presented on a separate page in APA format, and all Tables and Figures are included after the References.

Tables come first, followed by figures.

Tables and Figures may, however, be embedded in the text for some journals and undergraduate research papers (such as the B.S. Research Paper or Honors Thesis) (depending on the instructor’s or editor’s policies; for further details, see “Deviations from APA Style” below).

Supplementary information (optional) — In certain situations, extra material that is not necessary for understanding the study report is supplied, such as a list of experiment stimuli, details of a secondary analysis, or programming code.

This is frequently included in an Appendix.

Differences of Research Papers in APA Style

Although the major sections described above are common to most research papers written in APA style, there are variations on that pattern.  These variations include: 

  • Literature reviews – When a study involves summarizing previously published research rather than presenting fresh empirical research (as in a review article, especially a qualitative review), the authors may omit the Methods and Results sections. Instead, a different format is used, such as an Introduction part, followed by sections for each of the many components of the body of research being evaluated, and sometimes a Discussion section. 
  • Multi-experiment papers – When there are numerous experiments, it is typical to follow the Introduction with an Experiment 1 section, which includes subsections for Methods, Results, and Discussion. Then there’s Experiment 2 with a similar structure, Experiment 3 with a similar structure, and so on until all experiments are covered. A General Discussion section follows References at the conclusion of the text. Furthermore, in multi-experiment publications, the Results and Discussion subsections for each experiments are frequently integrated into single “Results and Discussion” sections.

Departures from APA Style

Official APA style may not be followed in some circumstances (however, be sure to check with your editor, instructor, or other sources before deviating from standards of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association). Examples of such deviations include:

  • Placement of Tables and Figures – Tables and/or Figures are sometimes included in the text to make reading the document simpler (for example, having a bar graph placed in the relevant Results section). One of the most prevalent departures from APA style is the incorporation of Tables and/or Figures within the text (and is commonly allowed in B.S. Degree Research Papers and Honors Theses; however you should check with your instructor, supervisor, or editor first). 
  • Incomplete research – In this department, a B.S. Degree Research Paper is occasionally prepared regarding research that is currently planned or in process. In such situations, simply an Introduction and Methods section, followed by References, is supplied (that is, in cases where the research itself has not formally begun). In other circumstances, preliminary data are reported and identified as such in the Results section (for example, when the study is ongoing but not completed), while the Discussion section adds disclaimers regarding the research’s ongoing nature. Again, with your instructor, supervisor, or editor first.
  • Class assignments – An assignment in some classes in this department must be written in APA format, however it is not a standard research paper (for instance, a student asked to write about an article that they read, and to write that report in APA style). In that instance, the structure of the document may resemble, but not fully, the standard sections of an APA research paper. You should consult your teacher for more information.


1.  Do you have to follow the exact research paper structure?

Yes, and failing to do so will very certainly have a negative influence on your grade. It is critical that you compose your research paper according to the framework outlined in this article. To prevent a jumbled structure, stick to your research paper plan. The architecture of various sorts of academic papers vary greatly. The framework necessary for a literature review, for example, is considerably different from the structure required for a scientific research publication.

2.  What if I’m having trouble with certain parts of a research paper?

If you’re having trouble with some portions of a research paper, check at some examples of completed research papers in a related field of study to get a better understanding of what you need to include.

Read a step-by-step guide to creating a research paper, or look at the research paper examples section at the conclusion of this page.

Perhaps you’re just out of ideas!

How to Write a Discursive Essay: Step-by-Step Guide

Perhaps, during your coursework at one point you will have to complete your discursive essay writing. The most common inquiries from students are: How do you write it?

What exactly is a discursive essay? Throughout their education, students are given a variety of assignments. Each work is unique and has certain needs and standards that must be followed.

A discursive essay example is often regarded as one of the most difficult sorts of essay writing for college students. Many of them do not understand the distinction between a discursive and an argumentative essay. However, each essay style has different characteristics that we will discuss below. If you were asked to write this assignment and are unsure what subjects to choose, here are some professional recommendations and guidance on how to build a fantastic discursive essay outline.

What is a Discursive Essay: Meaning and Definition

Another type of academic paper is the discursive essay, which is intended to assess students’ abilities and knowledge. Its key distinguishing feature is the intention to elicit conversation on the call-off issue. As a result, the author becomes involved in any scenario, topic, or problem. In addition to demonstrating your possibilities and original ideas, this style of paper is designed to demonstrate your abilities to gather and apply arguments. As a result, such a work is not only theoretical, but also practical for students of any year of study.

You can face discursive essays in 3 types:

  • papers with for and against arguments;
  • essays to demonstrate your opinion about exact topic;
  • texts with real propositions and problem solutions.

They differ slightly, but the primary purpose is the same: the author should give his perspective and explore the subject using pertinent reasons. Every writer must follow numerous stages when writing a discursive essay. You must adhere to a good framework and meet all standards.

How do I plan and write a discursive essay?

As with each essay, there is a technique you may follow to write high-quality essays while making your life simpler. Do not even fret, we have a procedure in place. Let’s look at the Matrix approach Matrix students study.

discursive essay

Flowchart: The steps to writing a discursive response

How to Start a Discursive Essay?

Before you begin writing, you need take a few vital measures. Do not expect to get a good grade by writing numerous pages about whatever you want. The discursive essay is not an easy assignment. If the author wishes to write a spectacular paper, he should adhere to such a plan:

Step 1: Brainstorm Ideas for Discursive Essay

Before you do anything, you should think about what you know about the matter at hand. The first step is to create a mind-map that contains all you know about the subject. Mindmaps should include a list of the features of the issue that you believe are worth researching or would be interesting to investigate. Your mindmap is vital since it will show you which things you need to investigate and research.

Step 2: Topic Selection for Discursive Essay

The discursive essay has the benefit of being able to be dedicated to any topic. On the other hand, it is a disadvantage for a student since he must think about several subjects and articulate himself correctly. You have two options: select one of the topics on the list or create your own, unique one. Both approaches need equal work and specific expertise.

Step 3: Research and come up with your ideas on the Discursive Essay

You have created a brainstorm so that you can get started. You must now develop the concepts that you have unpacked. This will necessitate some study on your part. Fortunately, you have the internet’s power at your fingertips.

Examine your mindmap and begin investigating the subjects or thoughts you’ve jotted down. Wikipedia is a fantastic location to start looking for information on a variety of topics. However, you may also watch movies on YouTube or visit news websites such as the New York Times.

Make an effort to select trusted websites. A personal blog, for example, will not have the same level of reliability as a big news site, a museum, or Wikipedia. You should begin by looking at the general issue that interests you, and then choose two or three elements to examine in depth. Don’t allow your study become too extensive; you’ll most likely only be producing a 1000-1200 word answer.

Some dos and don’ts:

  • Do – Follow the ideas that interest you
  • Don’t – Research too many different ideas
  • Do – Research different perspectives on your topic
  • Don’t – Settle for just one source
  • Do – Make note of useful sources, examples, and quotations for your response
  • Don’t – Skip out on doing research
  • Do – Check the reputation of the website
  • Don’t – Forget to make notes of examples and useful pieces of information, like quotations

Once you have researched your topic, you are ready to start planning things.

Step 4: Create an Outline for Discursive Essay

Regardless of how brief an essay is, the author should write an outline. This blueprint includes the fundamental structure of your future paper as well as a brief summary of each section. The introduction, major body, and conclusion are all included in all sorts of discursive essays. As a result, the structure is identical to that of other scholarly articles. Every component of the structure performs the same function:

  • Introduction announces topic and your main questions to be described in paper;
  • Body includes the arguments and thesis statements to discuss;
  • Conclusion requires from author to share his options and findings of his topic.

Step 5: Notice 3-5 Main Ideas in Body for Discursive Essay

These arguments represent your ability to prove or refute the assertions in your topic. Make certain that powerful arguments allow the writer to feel liberated and enthusiastically explore the issue.

It would be fantastic if you had 3+ agreements for and 3+ agreements against concepts. This is when your preparation comes into play. When composing the body of your discursive answer, consider the sequence of information your reader will need to make sense of your topic. So, organize your body paragraphs using your planning notes. While a topic sentence is not required, you should get to the point of the paragraph within the first couple of phrases. You may adjust the length of your paragraphs to fit the amount of information you wish to cover.

Rules for writing your paragraphs:

  • Use clear and direct language. For example, avoid the passive form
  • Employ a conversational and accessible tone
  • Use language suited to an educated audience
  • Vary your sentence length
  • Support your points with examples and quotations about your topic
  • Employ rhetorical techniques and literary devices to convey your ideas (check out this Essential Guide to English Techniques if you need inspiration)
  • Utilise anecdotes to connect with your audience
  • Include pop-culture and intertextual references that will help your reader follow your ideas
  • Use first and second person pronouns:
    • “You” to refer to the reader or people in general
    • “I” to introduce your perspectives and experiences
  • When finishing one paragraph and moving to another, orient the reader. For example, “While that one perspective, that’s not the only perspective.”

Step 6: Write the Draft of your Discursive Essay

You may simply compose the entire discursive essay if you have reasons for both sides. Follow the basic framework and include all of your thoughts to reassure readers of your abilities.

Giant’s advice: you may include not only your own arguments, but also credible ideas from well-known specialists in the industry. For example, use main and secondary materials to boost the impact of your own words.

Step7: Write a Conclusion for Discursive Essay

Your closing remarks should be completely distinctive. To end your work and show your views about your topic, use your own ideas. You can produce a terrific closing paragraph if you have solid arguments. Furthermore, don’t forget to emphasize the importance of your work and the issue on which you have expressed your perspective. Your conclusion should summarize everything. While you are not attempting to reaffirm your beliefs as in a persuasive essay, you do need to connect the dots.

You don’t need to follow the rigid formula of:

  1. Restate thesis
  2. Reiterate themes
  3. Make a statement about your experience of studying the Module

Instead, you must connect the numerous points of view discussed in your essay. Remember that the purpose of a discursive essay is to investigate a subject from several angles rather than to persuade the reader of a particular viewpoint. As a result, you should walk the reader through the many points of view you have experienced. 

Step 8: Proofread Your Discursive Essay

When you are enthused about writing, it’s difficult to detect your own typos or errors. That is why you must proofread your work numerous times to ensure its accuracy. As a result, producing a discursive essay is a difficult undertaking. Although the paper is brief, you must pay close attention to each line and assess its connection to the primary arguments and core issue.

After you have finished your first draft, set it away for a few hours or a day or two before rereading and editing it. This will allow you to look at it with “fresh eyes,” implying that you will have forgotten some of what you wrote.

When proofreading your initial draft, use fresh eyes to be more objective. You should print out your initial draft so you may annotate it as you go. However, this is not always practical, and it is certainly not ecologically beneficial. Track changes on a Word, Pages, or GoogleDoc document will also function.

Make an effort to annotate and monitor changes. You will want to keep track of your modifications, and you may need to show your professors that you’ve used an editing procedure.

To proofread and amend your comment, do the following:

  1. Reread the essay
  2. As you read:
    1. Underline any sentences that do not make sense
    1. Circle any pieces of grammar that are incorrect
    1. Check for proper comma and apostrophe usage

3. Consider the sequence in which you delivered the material. “Does this make sense?” ask yourself. “Does this make sense?” Do not be hesitant to make drastic adjustments or reorganize the paragraphs or concepts in your response.

4. Consider whether your essay persuaded you. “Do I communicate concepts in a way that demonstrates my skill and insight?”

5. Consider how you may improve your writing by incorporating a figurative device or rhetorical strategy.

6. Take notes on what you believe is beneficial in your writing.

7. Make notes on what aspects of your response you believe might be more effective or enlightening. It’s important to be objective about your writing.

This can make it hard to give an honest appraisal about what works and what does not. Do your best to be as objective and critical about your work as you can.

You need to use these notes and edits to write a second draft. Once you have finished proofing and editing your work you are ready to write your second draft.

Step 9: Write a second draft based on your notes and edits

Instead of updating an existing work, you should develop a second draft from scratch.


Rewriting manuscripts from scratch will always increase the writing quality.

Because you are not currently working with sentences on a page but are rewriting them, you will be less likely to not update and improve them.

What exactly do I mean? Do you ever look at a sentence in a word document that you’re revising and think, “I know I should modify that sentence, but I really like it, so I’ll make it work?”

If you do, you are not alone. However, it is a horrible habit to develop.

Rewriting your second draft from scratch can make you less likely to cling to sentences that may appear lovely to you but are not effective at delivering your ideas.

Furthermore, reworking your essay will make it simpler to incorporate new rhetorical devices and literary styles, reorder things, and make significant structural modifications.

Do not be afraid to use the drafting process to experiment with your writing and improve it.

How to Write a Good Discursive Essay when given Examples?

If you want to write an excellent report, you should not disregard discursive essay samples. You must seize every opportunity to improve your essay, and strong examples provide such an opportunity. There are several samples available on the Internet; simply study them and apply the knowledge correctly.

The following are the most significant advantages of adopting discursive essay samples:

Pay attention to the discursive essay’s typical format

The fundamental framework is approximate, but every writer should adhere to current guidelines. Remember that each tiny drink has an impact on your ultimate grade;

Determine the substance of important components in structure

In general, discursive writing is similar to other types of essays, although there are a few differences. You will grasp such things after watching excellent samples;

Observe the most prevalent errors in your Discursive Essay

You will be able to prevent such issues in your paper if you understand them. Let’s face it: it’s far better to learn from the errors of others than to make your own. Nobody likes to make silly mistakes, therefore essay examples will keep you from making them.

Furthermore, be careful not to reproduce any borrowed content without permission and include a link in the reference list, since your writing may fail a plagiarism check. As a result, high-quality discursive essay samples are regarded as the ideal way to improve your writing. This is an excellent opportunity for inexperienced yet proficient authors. If you are not very skilled at writing, you should get discursive essay ideas for the topic or the entire paper.

You merely need to supply the author with all relevant details about your project and wait a few days. You may be certain that your professor will be delighted to award you the best possible grade!

How to Make Your Discursive Essay Perfect?

To make your paper excellent, try these exclusive suggestions from expert authors:

  • Use formal third-person speech;
  • Make a special map of notes to clarify own points;
  • Imagine they have to walk in another person’s shoes to collect only fair arguments;
  • Use good and well-known examples from real life to support arguments;
  • Add references to all borrowed ideas; and
  • Finish paper at least a day before the deadline to allow for additional editing time.

However, try to avoid making the following mistakes: using over-generalization, clichés, personal examples, casual language, an overly emotive writing style, and insisting on your own correctness.

It is difficult to comprehend how to create a discursive essay, but you can do it!

Simply utilize your best abilities to produce outstanding paper.

Discursive Essay Topics UK

There is another challenge that students face when writing discursive essays. They usually have to come up with something new and come up with a theme. Sometimes such a work necessitates the same amount of time as writing. It is excellent if you have a decent alternative in mind.

But if you are stuck for ideas, we’re here to assist. The following are the TOP-15 fascinating and evergreen themes for discursive essays:

  1. Do we believe in the death penalty?
  2. Plastic surgery’s power: yes or no?
  3. Is severing hands the only method to get rid of corruption?
  4. Should individuals in Muslim nations learn religious tolerance?
  5. What are your thoughts on the childfree movement?
  6. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: “The only free cheese is in the mousetrap?”
  7. Is Kazimir Malevich’s Black Square valuable or overpriced?
  8. Which automobile manufacturer is the finest in the world?
  9. What are your thoughts on the marriage of convenience?
  10. What is the optimum age for persons to obtain a driver’s license?
  11. Do you believe in same-sex relationships?
  12. When is the optimum age to marry?
  13. Did slavery have a good impact on global economics?
  14. Is it preferable to respond to a rationale or to your heart?
  15. Where is the finest place to visit?

Simply choose one topic and begin writing your fantastic discursive essay! If you want extra assistance, simply ask our experienced writer to do this assignment for you. Our staff is made up of expert essay writers that are eager to produce any type of academic assignment. Feel free to ask them for assistance or a basic consultation right now!

Why do I need to learn how to write “discursive essays”?

Module C of the 2019 English Syllabus for the HSC has been significantly modified.

Module C is no longer just another module for analyzing texts and creating essays. Instead, the new Module C: The Craft of Writing is designed to help you improve as a writer.

To do this, they have created a Module that needs you to write in a number of modes:

  • Imaginative: Imaginative writing is also known as creative writing. Writing a creative work, such as a short story or creative rethinking, is an example.
  • Persuasive: Persuasive writing is written to persuade someone of an idea or a point of view. The majority of the writings you write in high school are persuasive essays.
  • Informative: Informative writing attempts to educate readers about facts and statistics. This might refer to a report, but it could also refer to other sorts of writing, such as popular science or travel writing.
  • Discursive: Discursive writing examines an idea from several angles.

It might be amusing or serious in tone. The National Endowment for the Arts hopes that by training you to write in a variety of forms, you will become a more confident and skilled communicator. This writing style will enhance your writing abilities in ways that are useful outside of high school and the HSC.

Is a discursive essay different from a regular persuasive essay?

Most essays you write in high school need you to take a stand and fight for it. Essentially, you are being expected to persuade a reader of anything — a theme or concept in a work, or its relationship to context.

Discursive essays, on the other hand, do not force you to take a certain stance on something. Instead, when writing a discursive essay, you might look at your issue from a variety of angles.

This allows you to consider the benefits and downsides as well as see what others think about something. Furthermore, discursive essays are less rigorous and formal than the conventional persuasive essay required for other Modules.

You will have the opportunity to create your own voice and style in a discursive essay. Consider the table below to gain an idea of the differences in forms:

DetailDiscursive EssayPersuasive Essay
Table: Discursive Vs. Persuasive Essays
Register of languageA mix of formal and informal languages with occasional colloquialismsFormal
Style and toneAim for an educated audience, but the tone and style can be friendly and more openly subjectiveAcademic, objective, and intellectual
Use of first-person pronounsFirst-person pronouns are fineFirst person pronouns should be used cautiously and judiciously
Use of figurative devicesShould be used throughoutNot recommended
Use of evidence and examplesYes, but not in a T.E.E.L or P.E.E.L formatYes, consistently and in a particular format
StructureRequires an introduction, conclusion, and paragraphing. Paragraph length can vary. There is no definitive scaffold.Introduction, body paragraphs, conclusion. Formal structure appropriate to the Module. Consistent paragraph length throughout.

Struggling with writing a discursive essay?

Learn how to do research, structure, and write a discursive essay with professional advice and criticism!


This type of writing, according to the discursive essay description, represents a solid stance with trustworthy backing. As a result, writing a strong argumentative paper necessitates careful planning. Some may feel that writing requires pure skill, yet it is only one component of success. Let us dissect the secrets of an A+ essay!

Opt for a controversial topic

“How do I write original essay?” you may be asking. People frequently choose safe topics for their essays. However, if you want to stand out, go with something different.

Fortunately, there are many unusual debate subjects available nowadays. The subject should ideally be both distinctive and familiar to you, making it easy to present fascinating instances and arguments.

Strong thesis

After you have chosen an unusual topic, the aim is to develop a solid thesis statement. To explain, an essay must provide a remark that narrows down a large topic. It is critical to avoid claims that are apparent and barely contested. Instead, stick on contentious issues that are easily supported by evidence.

Thorough research

Another important priority before beginning an essay is to go through several sources of information. Relying only on word of mouth is futile. Take your time looking for supporting evidence, especially if the topic is unfamiliar to you. Errors in academic papers are frequently caused by a lack of technical understanding. Any discursive essay sample must have sources.

Discursive Essay FAQ

  1. How do I write a discursive essay?

This question has no definitively valid solution. The content, like any other essay, should have a defined format that includes an introduction, body, and conclusion. The most critical aspect is that the book as a whole be coherent, convincing, and enjoyable to read.

  • How to start a discursive essay?

An example of a step by step guide is:

  1. Take a closer look at the topic, think about the points to cover.
  2. Choose the most relevant points and compose the Body of the essay.
  3. Add an appropriate Introduction and Conclusion.
  • How to conclude a discursive essay?

To create a decent conclusion, you must have completed the whole of the essay. Does your essay’s body contain well-structured points? Great, then see what you can deduce from it. Make a link between the introduction and the conclusion if feasible.

  • How to structure a discursive essay?

Begin by making an outline to guarantee that your article has a proper structure. You may deliver your views step by step if you have a strategy. Your content should have a pertinent introduction, several significant body points (with examples), and a logical conclusion.

  • What style should I take in a discursive essay?

Discursive essays differ stylistically from persuasive essays. They might be either serious or amusing. They are not a new writing style; discursive essays were a popular genre of writing during the Renaissance and Early Modern periods. Mary Wollstonecraft, Charles Lamb, Elizabeth Barret Browning, Samuel Johnson, GK Chesterton, and Michel de Montaigne were all well-known essayists of their day who authored both discursive and compelling pieces. The discursive essay has been less prevalent over time than the persuasive essay.

Discursive writing is becoming increasingly frequent in our context. Discursive essays may be found in the works of contemporary writers such as Zadie Smith, John D’Agata, and Ta-Nesi Coates. You will find examples of discursive writing in publications like:

  • Do I need to analyse evidence in a discursive essay?

In discursive essays, you will need to give proof, but not in the same way that you would in persuasive writing.

The goal is to investigate various ideas or subjects.

You will need to provide evidence to do so.

However, literary analysis will not always be included (although it might if you so choose).

Instead, you will be writing about concepts and maybe supporting them with quotations from other people, or you will be supporting them with personal tales and insights.

  • What structure should a discursive essay have?

You will use essay scaffolds while writing persuasive essays based on whether you are addressing one or more texts and the Module you are studying. Furthermore, you should make sure that your paragraphs are of the same length and include clear signposting, such as subject sentences and connecting phrases.

Discursive essays do not have the same rigorous structure or approach to signposting as formal essays. In a discursive essay, you may not address texts, but rather concepts or objects, such as an advertising, a political system, or a brand of shoe. This implies that depending on the part of the notion you’re describing, certain paragraphs will need to be lengthier than others.

Furthermore, because a discursive essay requires you to explain topics objectively while still using anecdotal experiences when appropriate, you may discover that your stories yield shorter paragraphs than your exposition of concepts. While you must express your ideas in the introduction and at the beginning of each paragraph, formal thesis statements and subject sentences are not required.

After all, you are attempting to be more conversational and less official.


Guidelines for Writing Effective Essays

I. Argument: Reasoning and Evidence

  1. Define and refine the question to which your essay responds.  Even when the assignment provides you with queries to orient you in the topic, it’s up to you to frame and articulate the question, concerning a plausible point of contention.  That question need not be explicitly posed in the form of a interrogatory statement. But there should be no uncertainty in the reader’s mind about what the issue is, or what’s at stake in it for you.  A suitable question is one that has potential to yield an enlarged understanding of the work or the  topic under discussion.  Do so, you be sure of writing effective essays
  1. Respond to the framing question with a well-focused thesis. The thesis is the basic interpretive claim of your essay. It should be neither so facile as to be convincing without further argument, nor so speculative as to elude a cogent defense in the space of your essay.  It should be clearly announced at the outset of the paper (usually near the end of the opening paragraph) and supported with adequate reasoning and evidence over the course of the essay.
  1. Do not confuse a strong argument with a strident one. A strong argument is one that shows cognizance of the objections it is likely to face; it is frank in  acknowledging any ambiguity or equivocality in the evidence.  Do not try to carry conviction on the strength of rhetorical vehemence: overstatements are a sure way to damage your credit with the reader.  Rather than merely seek to finesse the apparent difficulties in your argument, you should approach them as the occasion to probe its limiting conditions, with an eye to refining your thesis accordingly. Following every bit is an assurance of writing effective essays.
  1. When presenting your argument, limit your factual assertions to matters that you can demonstrate on the basis of the evidence that is available to you. Reference to historical facts may sometimes be appropriate for the purpose of clarifying the issues under discussion, but your thesis should not be dependent on any presumed factual claim (historical or scientific) that is open to reasonable contention.  
  1. When making claims that are based on, or which concern, written texts, support those claims with specific textual references.    Be copious in providing textual citations, i.e., references to specific passages in support of each significant claim that you make about the contents of the text under discussion – even when  you are not quoting the text verbatim.

• Citations may be provided in parentheses following the pertinent statement. You need provide only the page number (or paragraph number, when standard for that source text), along with the author’s name or an abbreviated title as appropriate.

Be it writing of great essays, research papers, articles and term papers, reach out to our team.

writing effective essays guide

II.  Organization: Paragraphs when writing Effective Essays

  1. Give a separate paragraph to each significant idea or element in your argument.  When writing effective essays, he direction and movement of your reasoning should be clearly discernible in the passage from one paragraph from the next.
  1. Give proper prominence to the main point of each paragraph. As a general rule, each paragraph’s primary point should be stated explicitly in either its first or its second sentence. The paragraph’s body should then be devoted to explaining, elaborating, or qualifying its main point.  (An exception to this general rule is the essay’s opening and closing paragraphs; with these, the main point is often best left for the end of the paragraph.)
  1. The opening paragraph should present  the question or problem to be addressed, and a clear statement of your thesis. Do not strain the reader’s patience with a string of banal platitudes or unsubstantiated claims.  (In a longer essay, it is sometimes suitable to extend the introduction over two paragraphs, using the first to frame the question, and the second to state your thesis and to point ahead.  In that case, the thesis statement should be clearly announced at the start of the second paragraph.)  
  1. Don’t waste your closing paragraph on rote recapitulation or wan platitudes. It’s your parting shot: make it a good one.

III.  Stylistics and Syntax: Sentences

  1. Be precise. Choose words and locutions with care, taking care to avoid vagueness, ambiguity, or distracting connotations. If you’re uncertain about the precise meaning of a word or phrase, look it up – preferably in the Oxford English Dictionary (available online). Don’t say ‘ideology’ when you mean opinion or doctrine or belief; don’t say ‘dictator’ when you mean monarch or tyrant or despot; don’t use the much-abused phrase ‘beg the question’ unless you are certain you know what it means. Avoid jargon and clichés.
  1. Be succinct. Take care to avoid ponderous repetition – a leading vice in students’ writing. Use shorter words and simpler locutions in preference to longer and fancier ones, except where the latter contribute to greater precision.  Don’t say ‘utilize’ when ‘use’ will do just as well.
  1. Be clear with your syntax. Never leave the reader to guess at the intended antecedent for a pronoun, or the subject that goes with a verb.  Sentences usually flow most easily when the main verb follows close after its grammatical subject, and when both precede any qualifying phrases or subordinate clauses.   Feel free to use other constructions when they better suit your purpose, but take care not to leave the reader confused or perplexed. 
  1. Be sparing in the use of direct quotations. Use them only when needed to make your point effectively, without taking up disproportionate space or distracting the reader with irrelevant information.  When you do quote from the text, it’s generally best to quote an entire clause or sentence, so as to avoid the jerky, breathless quality found in book-jacket copy and movie ads.  The only good reason to quote isolated words or phrases is when the author’s particular choice of words is pertinent to your argument.  We are here for you! Get help with writing effective essays from us.

1.     Useful Manuals for Academic Writing:

Williams, Joseph M.  Style: Toward Clarity and Grace (Chicago: U. of Chicago Press, 1990)

Booth, Wayne C., et al.  The Craft of Research (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003)

2.     Further Guidance & Advice:

Elbow, Peter. Writing With Power: Techniques for Mastering the Writing Process (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998)

Klinkenborg, Verlyn. Several Short Sentences About Writing (New York: Knopf, 2012)

How to Write A Policy Paper – Policy Paper Defined

When compared to standard research papers, policy papers have a unique format. A policy paper, on the other hand, is written for a completely different audience. The policy paper, unlike the research paper, is not always addressed to an academic audience.

Most of the time, it is intended for a non-academic audience. They are intended for officials, businesses, organizations, and government agencies. Policy papers are used to diagnose specific issues and propose solutions.

As a result, they place a greater emphasis on prescriptive questions. Policy papers can be very persuasive as well. The author will always argue in order to persuade the audience to accept the solution or idea that he or she is proposing. This is why it is critical that you provide evidence in support of the position you are taking. We can state unequivocally that knowing how to write a research paper does not imply knowing how to write a policy paper. This article will teach you how to write a policy paper.

structure of a policy

The Parts of A Policy Paper

There are several approaches to writing a policy report. The only thing that all policy papers have in common is their content. Every policy paper must have several key components. Understanding these components is critical while learning how to write a policy document. An explanation of the context and importance/value of the problem, a discussion of the policy options available, and policy recommendations are the three fundamental components.

When conducting research, there are a few key questions that will keep you on course. You must determine who your target audience is. You should also ask and comprehend the audience’s present policy perspective, and then map out the policy questions you will address in the policy paper. Consider the key stakeholders in the policy you intend to address.

Determine the policy options and how practical they are. Consider the criteria you will use to select the optimal policy as well as the evidence that will support the complete proposition. Failure to consider any of these will result in a major blunder, demonstrating that you do not know how to write a proper policy document.

Policy Paper Writing Format

There must be a consistent format, just like every other paper prepared anywhere in the world. Though a policy paper is not written for an academic audience, it is nonetheless an academic work and must adhere to academic paper writing guidelines.

To understand how to create a policy document, you must first recognize that you are writing something akin to a decision memorandum. This is written in a different tense from the research papers that are merely theoretically relevant. You must write in the present or future tense, and the paper’s conclusion must be highly practical. Make sure you conduct extensive study on the subject and explain your findings using detailed endnotes.

Every good policy report should begin with a brief and to-the-point introduction or background. A problem statement might be included in the paper as a distinct section or at the end of the introduction. This must specify the issue for which you are looking for a solution.

This is followed by the goals of the country, coalition, corporation, or organ seeking a solution. Ascertain if the policy paper’s objectives are aligned. The choices sector describes the policy options that can be considered. If feasible, try to make it up to three possibilities. The options are then evaluated.

This is where you explain how each alternative contributes to achieving the given objective or goal, as well as how much it will cost to implement the option. Consider the positive and negative aspects in relation to the consequences of each. Following the study of the possibilities, the suggestions are made.

If your policy paper lacks any of these elements, you are not writing a proper policy document. It is assumed that if you do not know how to write a policy paper, you cannot suggest any feasible and workable policy. In the recommendation section, choose the best option and explain why you believe it is the best. The recommendation should be practical and self-contained. Following that, describe the policy’s shortcomings in the following section, then conclude with the cost advantages of implementing the program.

Structure of a Policy Paper

  1. The Executive Summary.

You are now ready to build your white paper or briefing book and compose the Executive Summary once you have selected your dominant recommendation/s or findings. The structure of the paper or briefing book should build toward your recommendations rather than developing the problem or research’s chronology.

As a structuring method, writing a draft of the Executive Summary first can be beneficial. Of course, you will return to it at the end of the writing process to revise it in accordance with your final analysis.

The Executive Summary is the most significant component of every policy paper, but it is also the most hardest to write. However, there are simple methods that will assist in transforming complex concepts into brief and effective arguments that will attract the attention of a busy reader.

For example, you will need to briefly outline the present policy scenario, offer immediate benefits and cons of your reasons for change, and state your recommendation/s or findings plainly. The Executive Summary acts as both a beginning point and a conclusion for the policy paper.

It communicates your essential recommendations by using your authority as a researcher or expert in your field. It not only summarizes your main arguments for the busy reader, but it also underlines your recommendations in a memorable way to lead future discussions. Consider it through the eyes of your decision-maker:

What essential points will help your decision maker recall and comprehend your study and recommendations? The executive summary should be no more than 5% of the total length of the paper, therefore a 100-page white paper might have a 5-page executive summary. This is only a guideline. Your executive summary should be as long as necessary to cover all of your main ideas.

  • Introduction (and Background)

These are occasionally separated into two sections, with the introduction devoted to the paper’s broad goals and underlying reasons and the background allowing for a more thorough discussion of the historical justification and context for the topic.

They are sometimes combined to indicate the backdrop for the ultimate aim, the decision to do study on the topic, or the overall picture for the research you are conducting. This is also a good place to highlight your theory of transformation.

  • Methodology

Briefly describe your process. Appendices should contain the micro data, survey questions, and precise specifics for your rationale.

  • Literature Review

In this section, you should provide a more in-depth description of the state of the academic work or thought that has already been done on the topic, and you should position your own study within the framework of questions that have not yet been answered. How does your study or initiative fit within the larger context of previous research or academic perceptions on the topic? What scholarly benefits does your work provide?

  • Policy Options or Policy Context

It is possible that, depending on the focus of your research, you will need to investigate both the benefits and drawbacks of the various policy choices that are available. You should always describe the current state of policy, including ongoing intervention initiatives.

  • Analysis of Findings or Evidence

This is your original research. Use descriptive headers and subheadings to help the reader follow and understand your argument’s logic and flow.

  • Case Studies and Best Practices

If your conclusions are based on original case studies, list the names of those case studies at the end of each individual case study, followed by “Lessons Learned.” Be mindful that “Best Practices” necessitate thorough analysis and do not follow logically from Lessons Learned. If your case study analysis is lengthy, you could move the entire details to Annexes and then summarize each with “Lessons Learned” (and, if applicable, “Best Practices”) in the report text.

  • Policy Options and Recommendations

Categorize these by specific subheaders. In certain policy papers, the findings and suggestions are combined, with the recommendations deriving directly from specific findings.

Most, on the other hand, give all findings in a single section, followed by policy choices and recommendations. To be clear, it is fine if your analysis stops short of comprehensive recommendations as long as you clearly set out the significance for your evidence analysis.

  • Implementation and Next Steps

Some policy documents incorporate implementation into their recommendations or subsequent actions. Others divide this section into separate sections to discuss the specific processes of how and when to implement the advice.

If there are major risks, expenses, or hurdles to implementation, you should address them in the section that explains the benefits and drawbacks of the policy recommendation/s. This section should be devoted to implementation mechanics. Again, your paper may stop short of building implementation, but you might include it in the “Next Steps” section.”

  1. Conclusion.

Return to the larger picture or the purpose of your analysis here:

What is the purpose of your analysis or your policy recommendation(s)? What if the decision-maker does not act on your study or follow through on your recommendation? What happens if she does? While you do not want to use rhetoric, this is your chance to remind your reader of the significance of your analysis.

  1. Appendices.

In most cases, they will include of the survey data and questions, charts and graphs, as well as the specifics of case studies that underpin your research.

  1. Bibliography

Policy papers written for professionals may not include references to their sources, but all academic papers are required to include a comprehensive bibliography in addition to references that are fully referenced and footnoted. On the other hand, the majority of white papers do not often include footnotes and endnotes.

Tips for Writing Executive Summary for Policy Paper

1. Have you addressed all of the critical aspects in your argument? Do you prepare your readers for the analysis that follows? In contrast, would the reader be fully prepared to analyze your point, testify on the problem, or move forward with a policy debate if this was all she had to refresh her memory after reading your comprehensive analysis?

2. Is there a brief, clear storyline that outlines the big picture?

3. How well do you summarize the sections that follow? Is the logic shown by the structure of those sections appropriate for your intended audience? Have you framed the issues through the eyes of important stakeholders, senior decision-makers, or your intended audience?

4. How detailed is the background information? Avoid wasting space on the background.

5. Are problems well defined in terms of the likely reader(s)? Are existing and proposed laws, regulations, and ongoing policy actions included, if applicable?

6. Do you indicate the trade-offs involved when offering policy options? Are all problems paired with viable remedies or change guidelines? Is the analysis and explanation of advantages and drawbacks sound?

7. Are the recommendations and/or results reasonable, clear, and prioritized logically?

8. Do you suggest a framework for future work on the issue?

9. Is the overall presentation and writing of professional quality? Do you avoid using too many words?

How to Make Your Policy Paper More Effective

You can choose any issue and write a policy paper about it. You can argue that any of the policy options is the best, but if you do not follow the advice below, your policy paper will be ineffective, and you will not have learned how to write a professional policy paper.

A public policy’s primary duty is to provide a broad framework of values and ideas from which an organ can make judgments and pursue actions or inactions on a specific topic. Every public policy must involve a commanding action.

It must be utilized to respond to real-world issues. It must strive toward a goal, and it must recommend specific steps to be taken, as well as the decision to take such measures or not.

Characteristics of A Policy Paper

If you truly understand how to produce an ideal policy paper, you must include these elements. Each policy paper must be of public interest, which means that it must aim to address a common interest of the majority of the population rather than a few.

A good policy document must be effective in terms of stating how the policy will achieve its objectives. It must be efficient by outlining how to use resources wisely in implementing the policy and obtaining the desired results.

It must also be consistent with the organ’s other goals and strategies in the big picture. Remember that the policy must also be equitable, ensuring justice and fairness to all members of society.

A good policy must reflect social values such as privacy, security, freedom, and patriotism. When learning how to write a policy paper, keep in mind that each paper is expected to have persuasive and complete arguments in order to explain all of the policy proposals it is presenting. The goal is for the audience to use the recommendations as a decision-making tool and a drive for action.

Organizing Your Policy Paper

Policy papers are professional and practical in character, and their length might vary. Following thorough analysis, each must provide numerous recommendations. The research problem is the primary emphasis of a properly prepared policy paper.

If yours deviates from this, it demonstrates that you do not understand how to write a policy document. The structure must be simple and straightforward. It must be written with the presumption that the reader is unfamiliar with the topic and has limited time to research it.

However, unlike a typical research report, this may not seek out to produce or uncover new knowledge or offer something new to the subject. However, it is mostly focused on giving a certain group of audience with the rationale for adopting a given policy and taking a specific action.

Your article must be written with the goal of convincing your readers of the accuracy of your analysis and the validity of your suggestions. Because it will be used for decision making, it must be written in a professional manner to prevent damaging its credibility.

Always polish your policy paper and make it as simple to read and understand as possible. Jargons will not be used in your policy document if you know how to write one. Make it an emotional piece.

A solid policy document must also be evidence-based. This is not a debate paper, thus your proposals must be based on solid evidence about the existence of the problem and the cost of implementing the recommended strategy.

Every policy document must be understandable, which means it must be written in short, unambiguous phrases with an explicit and straightforward format. Your memo must be written in a presentation manner that is simple to read and understand. Make good headings and subheadings and decorate your work with charts, figures, lists, and a table of contents.

The suggestions must also be viable. They must be based on actual events rather than projected or future scenarios. Your paper must include a clear strategy for determining whether or not the recommendations were successful. This is how you draft a suitable policy document.

Proofreading Your Policy Paper

You must ensure that your policy paper is error-free. Look for and eliminate frequent flaws that depict you as someone who does not know how to write a policy paper.

  • Have you considered the unforeseen effects of the implementation?
  • Make sure your work is prepared to anticipate reader queries by avoiding confusing phrases, open-ended questions, and declarative assertions.
  • Reduce the amount of subjective reasoning in your work by appropriately labeling your figures, tables, graphs, and charts.

Sample Policy Paper

Prize-winning policy analysis thesis, Harvard Kennedy School: Mamie Marcus (2007), Immigrant Voters in Massachusetts: Implications for Political Parties.

This policy analysis paper first highlights the findings, building on them for the subsequent recommendations. It is far simpler in style, structure, and argument than a Copyright Office white paper, but it offers a good starting point for understanding the structure of a standard white paper.

Prize-winning policy analysis thesis, Harvard Kennedy School: Agustina Schijman and Guadalupe Dorna, From Vulnerable Mountaineers to Safe Climbers (2012)

This policy paper offers trenchant insight on the decline of the middle class in Argentina, with actionable recommendations for the government. Following the Introduction, the paper defines its key terms and describes its methodology. It states clear motivations for the research, laid out as goals or objectives. At each step, the authors never lose sight of the practical and actionable nature of their research and recommendations.


What Is an Annotated Bibliography: Definition, Guide and Samples

Annotating a bibliography allows a researcher to arrange their sources while also assisting other scholars interested in the same topic. Annotating also forces you to examine your sources more closely and critically. When researching a topic, looking through another writer’s annotated bibliography can help you get started. Reading annotated bibliographies is an excellent approach to determine whether or not specific sources are beneficial.

An annotated bibliography is a collection of references to articles, books, documents, and other resources. Writing an annotated bibliography is a difficult task. There are numerous textbooks and manuals that differ in depth, relevance to modern science, and presentation style. Furthermore, there are many publications that are not textbooks yet are still useful to students.

At the same time, the annotated bibliography advised for students cannot be too broad; otherwise, it loses its meaning and is viewed as a “telephone directory” of names and titles rather than a recommendation. A student’s actual capabilities should also be considered.

Not every reading that a professional finds valuable is accessible to a student’s mind. The theories of great scientists must first be adapted; else, the opposite result can be obtained. On the other hand, simply recommending unimportant literature would be inappropriate.

The recommended annotated bibliography should describe some perspectives; in this respect, presentation simplicity should not be the only criterion of recommended reading. This list should be developed with the student’s future professional development in mind. As a result, any attempt to build an effective annotated bibliography can never be totally successful because there will always be questions about why something is included while others are not. As the student gains experience and understanding, truncation and growth may occur organically. Experts here at AssignmentGiant have prepared this guide for you.

Purpose of an annotated bibliography

When given as homework, an annotated bibliography gives you the opportunity to become familiar with the various sources of information that are accessible on a specific subject.

An annotated bibliography, depending on the specifics of the assignment that you have been given, may include the following:

  • A review of the existing literature on a specific topic
  • Evidence of the caliber and extent of the reading that you have completed;
  • An illustration of the range of sources that are available, such as journals, books, websites, and magazine articles;
  • Highlighting of sources that may be of interest to other readers and researchers;
  • Exploration and organization of sources for the purpose of further research.

Important parts of an annotated bibliography?

  • Citation details that are laid down in a fashion that is consistent with the format style
  • The purpose of the cited paper, which is discussed in a nutshell
  • Your impressions after reading the cited paper
  • An assessment of the author’s previous work
  • A discussion of how the cited study relates to your own work.

Questions to consider when writing annotated bibliography

You need to consider carefully the texts that you chose for your annotated bibliography. Keep the following questions in mind to help explain your options.

  1. What topic/problem am I investigating?
  2. What question(s) am I exploring? Identify the aim of your literature research.
  3. What kind of material am I looking at and why am I looking at it? Is it journal papers, reports, policies, or primary historical material that I’m seeking for?
  4. Am I being prudent in my text selection? Is each text relevant to my study topic and assignment specifications?
  5. What are the primary texts on my topic? Am I locating them? Are the sources valuable or frequently cited in other texts?

How to Write an Annotated Bibliography

How to start an annotated bibliography?

Prior to composing an annotated bibliography, gather resources. A bibliography, as well as any other sort of academic document, necessitates it. Save any information that may be useful in the future.

Go over all of the information you have gathered and choose the most important ones to retain. Here, you will find abstracts of the articles you are interested in reading.

How to do an annotated bibliography?

Begin by writing a complete citation, followed by the comment. Fill in the blanks with:

  • The work’s objective
  • A brief description of the content
  • Who is the intended audience for this work?
  • Your topic’s relevance
  • The material’s strengths and weaknesses
  • Should an annotated bibliography be made alphabetically or chronologically? It can be done in one of these methods; simply ask your instructor which is preferable.

How can you make an impressive annotated bibliography? Annotations should include a summary of the work’s scientific value, a description of the publication’s structure and style of presentation of the material, and a brief explanation of the content (focusing on the most important issues). In the appropriate form and term, the created annotated bibliography is submitted to the teacher for verification.

annotated bibliography

Structure of an Annotated Bibliography

When selecting themes for annotated bibliographies, it is vital to work backwards from their originality, relevance, and the level of interest that the target audience has in them, as well as their correspondence to the profile and capabilities of the library. During the process of researching potential topics for annotated bibliographies, you are supposed to ascertain whether or not there is sufficient literature on the subject to completely comprehend the terminology as well as the core of the issue itself.

At this level, it is desirable to enlist specialists in this field of knowledge for consulting and methodological support in the cases that are the most difficult. They are able to forecast when the “peak of interest” to the subject will occur and when there will be an increased demand for the papers that are reflected in the manual. Do not be hesitant to seek the assistance of librarians; keep in mind that the success of all subsequent work is dependent on the breadth of research conducted on the subject. The structure is as follows:

  • Annotated bibliography introduction

An introduction to the annotated bibliography can be provided in the form of a descriptive bibliographic paragraph. An annotated bibliography is a set of bibliographic information about a document that is given according to certain rules, establishing the sequence order of areas and elements, and intended for the purpose of identifying the document and describing its general characteristics. A bibliographic description is a component of an annotated bibliography.

  • The information relating to the title

The title information includes information clarifying the main title, information regarding the type, genre, and purpose of the work, and the availability of translation from another language.

  • The information about responsibility

This section offers information about individuals and groups involved in the creation of intellectual or other content for the work described.

  • The information about publication

This is information about responsibility related to additional edition information.

How to Write an Annotated Bibliography Step by Step

  1. Gather Necessary information

A bibliographic search is a search for information (the selection of bibliographic documents) for the aim of further bibliographic processing (recording) based on bibliographic data. There are three major goals of information search in the bibliography.

The initial goal is to find the essential information about the source and establish its presence in the system of other sources. It is carried out by searching for bibliographic information and bibliographic manuals (informational publications) designed specifically for more efficient information search and use (literature, books).

The second goal is to look for information sources (documents and publications) that have or may provide the required information. The third is the search for factual information included in literature, such as a book, on historical facts and events, technical qualities of machines and processes, attributes of substances and materials, biographical data from a writer’s or scientist’s life and work, and so on.

Bibliographic search methods:

  • The complete method

In the complete method, a bibliographer, for the accomplishment of an assigned task, examines completely and without gaps all the available manuals and sources.

  • The selective method

A more rational and real way of searching for literature is the selective method. In literature, it is also often called the “episodic method.”

  • The intuitive method

This is an approach to finding the necessary sources based on the assumption of basic knowledge, taking into account concretization by any type (author of works, genre, publishing house).

  • The typological (prescription) method

In any event, the typological (prescription) technique reflects and incorporates a specific rational beginning, of a planned character, into the process of informative inquiry. At the same time, it emphasizes the significance of the beginning of this intricate process. It can be chosen based on intuition as well as deliberate, purposeful reasoning, a working hypothesis, or a recipe.

  • The inductive method

The general conclusion about the availability of the sought-after sources (factual information) on the issue of interest in this case is made on the basis of a study of all individual sources.

  • The deductive method

The opposite of the inductive method is done on the basis of specific single sources.

  • By bibliographic references

This concerns searching sources from already existing bibliographic databases.

  • By going from the abstract to the concrete.
  • Write a bibliographic description

A bibliographic description is a bibliographic model of the document, and it is formatted in the form of a network of interrelated pieces with the identification punctuation that came before it. The primary objective of the bibliographic description is to locate the publication within the informational infrastructure of other organizations.

Types of bibliographic description:

  • Monographic – involves the description of a single document.
  • Summary – a description of a multi-volume or serial document.
  • Analytical – this is the description for any part of the document.
  • Brief – a description of only the mandatory elements of a specific document.
  • Advanced – here there is a description of the required elements, as well as one or more optional elements.
  • Complete – description of the required element and all possible optional elements.
  • Consolidated – a description that is performed with various publications of the same document: reprints, translations, and or other documents related to it – reviews, essays, etc.
  • A bibliographic reference is a bibliographic description of a cited, considered, or referred document work.

Include information about the type, genre, and purpose of the work, information about individuals and groups engaged in the creation of the work described in the description, as well as information concerning responsibility.

Annotated Bibliography Template

  • MLA annotation

Smith, Valerie. The Great Depression in the United States. Economist, 2002.

Smith’s book presents a comparative analysis of economic crises: the 1930s in the United States. She talks about features of crises in the country. The author also mentions dynamics of GDP, GNP, and prices. The book presents a reproduction of the population in times of crisis.

  • APA annotation

Beсket, N. (2007). Cyclical development of the world economy and financial crises. New York, NY: Finance and Credit.

This book talks about the theory of economic cycles and the current financial and economic situation in the world.

  • Chicago Manual annotation

Smith, Hilda Ellis. Features of Economic and Financial Crises in the Process of World Integration. London: Routledge, 2009.

Based on the analysis of several major financial crises of the last twenty years, the article concludes that the basis of crises lie in the miscalculations of monetary authorities in the art of advanced regulation, and their inadequate ability to pursue responsible macroeconomic policies. In conclusion, there are several indicators of the state of the financial market, according to the level of which you can try to assess the degree of a crisis threat for a particular national financial market.

What types of annotations are there?

There are three main types of annotations, and the different kinds of information can be combined, such as the summary and evaluation or evaluation and reflection, etc.

  • The summary— This particular kind of annotation offers a synopsis of the source. A common format for the summary is to begin by stating the purpose of the source, then to discuss the method that the authors of the source employed in their argument or study, and then to provide the primary finding(s) or conclusion (s).
  • The evaluation— This type of annotation explores the source’s strengths and faults. It may also describe why/how the article is valuable or fascinating and who it would be useful for (someone new to the issue, someone knowledgeable about the topic, graduate students or professional, undergraduates, etc).
  • The reflection— In this type of annotation, you explain how the source did or did not contribute to your research and how it did so. It is also possible to mention how the source contributed to the development of your argument or how it altered your perspective on the issue.

Check with your instructor on the kinds of information they want your annotations to include.

Examples of Annotated Bibliography

Here you will find examples of annotated bibliographies for several disciplines in order to understand what you should write in your own annotated bibliography.

Sample annotation

The citation goes first and is followed by the annotation. Make sure that you follow your faculty’s preferred citation style. The summary needs to be concise. Please note the following example is entirely fictitious.

In the sample annotation below, each element is numbered (see Key).

(1) Trevor, C.O., Lansford, B. and Black, J.W., 2004, ‘Employee turnover and job performance: monitoring the influences of salary growth and promotion’, Journal of Armchair Psychology, vol 113, no.1, pp. 56-64.

(2) In this article Trevor et al. review the influences of pay and job opportunities in respect to job performance, turnover rates and employee motivation.
(3) The authors use data gained through organisational surveys of blue-chip companies in Vancouver, Canada to try to identify the main causes of employee turnover and whether it is linked to salary growth.(4) Their research focuses on assessing a range of pay structures such as pay for performance and organisational reward schemes.
(5) The article is useful to my research topic, as Trevor et al. suggest that there are numerous reasons for employee turnover and variances in employee motivation and performance.
(6) The main limitation of the article is that the survey sample was restricted to mid-level management,
(7) thus the authors indicate that further, more extensive, research needs to be undertaken to develop a more in-depth understanding of employee turnover and job performance.
(8) This article will not form the basis of my research; however it will be useful supplementary information for my research on pay structures.
(1) Citation
(2) Introduction 
(3) Aims & Research methods
(4) Scope
(5) Usefulness (to your research/ to a particular topic)
(6) Limitations
(7) Conclusions
(8) Reflection (explain how this work illuminates your topic or how it will fit in with your research)

How to assess the relevance and value of sources in Annotated Bibliography

Your research issue or problem is something that should be investigated, and your annotation should now go to a brief evaluation of the source’s contribution to that inquiry. If your bibliography is a component of a research project, you should quickly explain how you plan to use the source and the reason why you will be using it. If your bibliography is a standalone effort, you should evaluate each source in terms of the contribution it made to the research done on your subject.

  • Which of the following aspects of the source’s research question or methodology (its method) piques your curiosity more: the way the source frames its research question or the way it goes about addressing it? Does it bring up new ways of looking at a problem or generate new connections between ideas? (for example, taking into account the Sparrow ruling regarding the rights of indigenous people to fish while determining the scope of women’s rights)
  • Are you interested in how a theoretical framework or a central idea is used in the source? (such as a study of rights that are now in effect, those that have expired, and others)
  • Does the source compile and evaluate a specific body of evidence that you intend to use in your argument? (such as the evolution of a body of legislation over the course of its history)
  • In what ways are the conclusions of the source relevant to your own investigation?

To choose how you will use the source or characterize its contribution, you must first evaluate the quality of the argument: why is it valuable? What are its constraints? How well specified is the research question? How effective is its investigative method? How reliable is the evidence? Would you come to the same conclusions based on the evidence?

Keep your project’s context in mind. In your course or discipline, how is content evaluated? What models for evaluating arguments are included in course materials?

FAQS on Annotated Bibliography

Which writing style should I use in the annotations?

  • Each annotation must be brief. Remember that you are writing a summary, not an essay, so don’t write too much. Unless otherwise specified in your assignment criteria, annotations should not exceed one paragraph. Because this is not a long piece of writing, only describe important and necessary details.
  • Background materials and references to past work by the same author are typically not included. There is no need to cross reference or utilize in-text citations to support your annotation because you are addressing one text at a time.
  • Unless otherwise specified, write in whole sentences using academic jargon.

What are the 3 parts of an annotated bibliography?

The three different parts of an annotated bibliography include the title, annotation, and citation. The title and citation format will vary based on the style you use. The annotation can include a summary, evaluation, or reflection.

How does an annotation differ from an abstract?

  • An abstract is a brief, objective summary of the essential content of a book, article, speech, report, dissertation, or other work, which presents the main points in the same order as the original.
  • An annotation is a paragraph, usually no longer than several sentences, added after a citation in a bibliography to describe or explain the content or message of the work cited, or to comment on it. Annotations can be descriptive or critical or a combination of both. A descriptive annotation summarizes the scope and content of a source. An critical annotation includes a brief evaluation of the source, including an assessment of its use, value and/or significance.

Examples of annotated bibliographies can be found in these sources:

How to Write a Book Review: Step by Step Guide

“How do I write a book review?” perhaps you are wondering how to go about it? We are here for you! In most cases, when we finish an engaging and thought-provoking book, we cannot help but want to talk to someone else about what we thought about it. Writing a review of a book is the most effective method for accomplishing that goal. Without any sort of criteria to follow, evaluating great works of literature can be challenging for pupils. The work of analyzing the material, making an outline, and organizing your thoughts is a demanding one, and it is made even more difficult if your writing skills are not of a professional standard.

However, if the directions are clear and concise, there is nothing that can’t be accomplished. You can find a detailed guidance on how to write a book review further down in this article. In this lesson, we will walk you through each stage of the writing process and provide you with a wide variety of helpful hints. You can also discover several examples of book reviews by clicking on the ORDER NOW button or requesting from our best writers here at AssignmentGiant. Do not be afraid to start reading and educating yourself!

What Is a Book Review?

A critical assessment and analysis of a book that is delivered in written form is what is known as a book review. It all depends on the writer’s intention behind penning the book review in the first place. Book reviews might be academic papers or creative writings. Writing a book review is a common task given to students at the university and school level by professors in order to assess the students’ level of writing ability as well as their level of critical thinking on a specific topic. On the other hand, knowledgeable literary critics often write book reviews as part of their professional activities because doing so is an integral aspect of the job. In conclusion, a book review is something that can be written by anyone who is interested in expressing their thoughts regarding the book in some way.

The structure of the book review should, as a general rule, be determined either by the requirements outlined by your instructor or by your own personal preferences. Although the type of structure can vary, we strongly suggest that you go with the conventional essay format, which consists of an introduction, the body of the essay, and a conclusion.

Common Book Review Formats

If your professor always goes through every aspect of the task with you, you should not have any concerns about how to complete it. Having said that, there are instances when you have to decide something on your own. The following will provide a description of five popular formats for book reviews for you to test. As a general rule, you are free to choose any one of them, regardless of the book that you are discussing. But make an informed decision!

General impression

Although at first glance this kind of book review could appear to be the least difficult, do not be fooled by appearances. Your evaluation will be cursory and inadequate if you fail to take into account an important component. Because there is not a significant amount of content to evaluate, this structure of writing a book review is the one that we suggest you use for short stories. A general impression consists of a synopsis of the story in a few sentences, an examination of the most important features, and your overall assessment.

Issue development

Every book will center on one or two primary concerns, but there may also be a few other recurring ideas throughout. These types of book evaluations can be valuable for a variety of purposes, including the study of a specific book as well as the analysis of a certain social, psychological, or moral issue. As a result, this particular arrangement of a book review is one that may be delegated to students who are engaged in the study of not just English literature but also a wide variety of other fields.

Character portrayal

Those who are interested in psychology can find this particular kind of book review to be very intriguing. Literary characters can be compared to human beings in many ways. The authors of high-quality books construct believable protagonists who act and progress in ways that are analogous to how real people do. It is possible that the structure of this book review will remind you of a character analysis essay. On the other hand, a good review does not only consist of an analysis of one particular character. You must also analyze the author’s ability to bring the character to life by making them believable and distinct.

Aspect analysis

This kind of book review will work very well for novels in which the author explores a wide range of topics, introduces a large cast of people, and discusses a variety of challenges. You are free to choose any facet and provide an in-depth and comprehensive analysis of it. Before beginning to write a review, you should make certain that the selected component is discussed in the book at a level that is enough, and not only in one brief exchange.

Comparative review

If you prefer writing essays that compare and contrast two different things, then you should use this approach for your book review. You could compare numerous characteristics in the works of the same author or works by other writers, such as the author’s writing style, the progression of an issue, or an opinion on a specific topic that is given in the novel, for example. In the same way that you could do in an essay, you may compare and contrast two aspects of the book in your review.

At long last, you are aware of the several alternatives available to you whenever you are tasked with writing a review. Additionally, we would like to bring to your attention the fact that, if you so like, you are free to combine a number of various formats in order to produce wholly original kinds of papers. Your creative potential ought to have no bounds, in particular when it comes to writing imaginative book reviews!

Step by Step Guide to Writing a Book Review

Planning beforehand makes it much simpler to complete any endeavor. When you are aware of precisely what actions are required at each stage, you are able to approach the situation with self-assurance. Learn the step-by-step process of how to write a book review, and then get to work right away!

steps of book review

1. Read a book

This step is so straightforward that it probably does not require an explanation, does it? Do you honestly believe that you could have gotten a high score without reading the original source? You really could give it a shot. However, we do not advise you to take this risk at this time. In addition, if the book you are reading is short, you can read it more than once to gain a more accurate impression.

2. Make notes                         

In order to analyze your writing process and provide feedback, your professor may occasionally request that you include all of your notes and drafts alongside the final copy of your book review. Even in situations where they are not required, the notes will be of tremendous assistance to you in terms of learning specifics and remembering them. You can also jot down a few quotes that will assist you in proving your position in the review, and you can do this by writing them down.

3. Read critical articles

In the event that it is not indicated in the instructions, you are not required to provide any additional information in your essay. In any case, you can find it helpful to read a few articles in order to get some ideas or inspiration for your review. Please, avoid plagiarism! If you think the idea the reviewer had is good, do not just blindly steal it! If you want to include the opinion of another person in your work, you should either paraphrase it or directly cite them. Remember that you should only use trustworthy sources when doing research, such as reputable newspapers, scientific journals, online encyclopedias, and so on.

4. Select the book review format

Select the best option from the list provided. Take into consideration your instructions, any personal preferences you may have, the word limit, and the type of book.

5. Get the topic and thesis statement

You will not be able to write a high-quality book review sample until you have a clear knowledge of your aim. Choose a specific issue and explain your point of view about it. Do you agree with the author’s point of view? Did the author succeed in developing a theme? Remember that if your thesis statement is irrelevant to your review, you can revise it afterwards. To begin, though, you must have a starting place.

6. Brainstorm

It is time to be creative! Examine your issue from all angles to acquire a complete picture. To attain the greatest results, use a variety of brainstorming strategies such as associations, questions, role storming, mind mapping, and so on. Unfortunately, you cannot use group brainstorming for individual tasks, but we are confident that your brilliant mind will suffice for a book review.

7. Create an outline

You now have a collection of fantastic ideas. The following stage is structuring. Consider how your book review will look and what sections it will include. Then, for each part, identify one core idea or keyword and write it down. Choose appropriate language and quotations for each point. As a result, you will have a firm basis for your writing.

8. Write the first draft

Believe us when we say you have everything you need to succeed. Overcome your apprehension about writing the first sentence! You do not have to get it right the first time. But you need a place to start, okay? The first draft is always full with inspiration and your unique voice. Don’t worry about grammatical errors; you can fix them later!

9. Proofread

This is the portion of the writing process that provides the least inspiration. Unfortunately, it is impossible to write a review of a book without first proofreading it. We have no doubt that your paper will be excellent; nonetheless, keep in mind that even the most insignificant errors might detract from the overall impression. Get some rest before you begin the process of modifying the document. Your mental processes require a restart in order to function at the necessary level of concentration.

10. Make Last Edits and Complete

Bring it up to the best level! If at all possible, solicit the opinions of your close friends and/or family members. A new point of view is always beneficial. Make sure that your reasoning, your arguments, and your terminology are all correct. If the sample book review you provided is one that you enjoy, it is likely that other people will as well.

You are currently in possession of an organized strategy that will allow you to write a review of a book. You are now prepared to learn about the errors that are most frequently made in reviews. In addition to that, we will discuss the most effective means of avoiding them.

Common Mistakes to Avoid While Writing a Book Review

You may have already heard about these errors, but it is our obligation to remind you of them again. We want to make sure we’ve done everything we can to improve your writing.

  • Avoid writing a summary.

Book evaluations do not serve as summaries. To tell your readers on the main narrative events and characters, give a brief summary in the text of your review. Don’t get caught up in details that are not relevant to your issue. Unnecessary details will make your book review tedious and wordy.

  • Provide your assessment

An assessment, along with a brief summary, is an essential component of a good review. Don’t be hesitant to speak your personal views! Avoid using terms like “rather,” “enough,” and “nearly,” as they will make your statements ambiguous. A bold assertion without any supporting evidence, on the other hand, will not be taken seriously. Always present instances and other powerful pieces of evidence to your audience.

  • Avoid being superficial

This is the most prevalent error in novel reviews. The author is unable to concentrate on a single topic or character and must write a few phrases about everything. A review of this nature will be neither useful nor interesting to the general audience. If you have opted to present a basic overview of the entire book, make sure your review is long enough to cover all of the novel’s important issues. Otherwise, you won’t be able to properly present the book.

  • Maintain the writing style

Have you ever received a professional letter that concluded with “XOXO” or “With love”? We have our doubts. Define your purpose before writing a book review example. Stick to the formal writing style when writing a review for an academic project. You do not have to follow precise guidelines or formatting style while writing a review for your personal blog or simply to share your thoughts with the wider audience. While we still advise you to avoid jargon, you are welcome to use first-person pronouns and statements such as “In my opinion,” “I believe,” “My initial impression,” and so on.

  • Provide strong arguments

A well-written book review, like any other sort of writing, requires argumentation. Each of your assertions and ideas should be supported by one or more arguments. We propose using examples, quotations, and analogies as the greatest forms of evidence in book evaluations. Remember that you cannot just remark, “I like/dislike this book.” In your writing, you must be consistent and follow particular arguments logic.

  • Do not plagiarize.

This is a rule that we will never tire of repeating. We refuse to accept you have no personal perspective or unique ideas! You may find inspiration in pieces published by experienced critics, but you should never underestimate your own writing abilities. We believe you can write an excellent text while avoiding plagiarism.

Okay, enough with the blunders for now! We’re confident that you’ll avoid them gracefully. If you need more help writing a book review, check out our fantastic academic writing books!

Our book review writing guide is nearly finished! The structure of this type of paper is the last thing you should learn about it. We will go over the essay-style framework for a review that is suitable for academic writing. You can violate all the norms and write the most extraordinary book review sample if you choose a creative book review.

How to Write a Book Review: Simple Structure

 IntroductionBackground information on the author and book (important biographical facts, rewards, publishing date, the main idea/topic)Hook (bold statement, rhetorical question, impressive statistics, or quotation that will intrigue your readers)Thesis statement (your starting point that establishes the structure of the whole book review)
The main bodyThree or more paragraphs (a new paragraph for each idea/point)Transitional words and phrases (they allow the readers to follow your thoughts easily)Logical structure (strong arguments and connections)
 ConclusionRestate the thesis statement (don’t rewrite it verbatim, try paraphrasing)Mention your overall evaluation (it should be based on the ideas and arguments presented in the main body)Provide recommendations for potential readers (tell whether you recommend this book or not and specify the categories of readers that might be interested)

We have provided you with all of the information that you require regarding the process of writing a book review. However, there is one more thing that will come as a surprise to you! You will get the best book reviews when you order for our help from the writers.

Simple way to write a Book Review

We will, as promised, share all of these book review samples with you! Please do not copy them mindlessly and offer them as your own work. This will be deemed plagiarism, or intellectual property theft. However, you have several legal options for using our samples. They will show you how to write a better book review than any theoretical guide. So, there are four ways to use our books to help with the writing process:

  • Information source

When researching a topic, our writers exclusively use credible sources of information. They avoid using Wikipedia articles, personal blogs, and publications in order to offer you with only reliable data and expert perspectives. As a result, you can utilize our samples as a source of knowledge without danger of being misled.

  • Citation

This is a key method for avoiding plagiarism. Make a correct reference in accordance with the formatting style specified, and you will have a good piece of proof for your point! Remember to include all of your sources in your reference list!

  • Paraphrasing

This strategy is more challenging than citing because each college has its own requirements for effective paraphrase. Before writing a book review, ask your instructor to explain his or her paraphrasing criteria. Formatting errors will have a negative impact on your grade!

  • Inspiration

Finally, well-written examples might assist you in overcoming writer’s block and the fear of the first sentence. Inspiration and inspiration are essential components of the writing process. So, let the Muse to accompany you.